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Physiology I

Synaptic Transmission - Test 3

What are the 2 types of synapses? 1. Elecrtical Synapses or Gap Junctions 2. Chemical Synapses (neurological)
What is cytoplasmic coninuity? Direct ionic pathway - Gap junctions allow closely aligned cells to communicate cytoplasm to cytoplasm by exchanging ions and other dissolved particles
What are the 2 types of electrical synapses? 1. Nonrectifying - bidirectional 2. Rectifying - unidirectional
What is the max weight for particles allowed to move through gap junctions and allow fo cytoplasmic continuity? 1500 molecular weight
What are some important characteristics of chemical synapses? 1. One way transmission 2. Time Delay 3. Exocytosis 4. Diffusion 5. Receptor Activation
What is another name for the terminal end of an axon? Bouton
What are the 3 types of Chemical synapses? 1. Axosomatic - Axon to Body 2. Axodendritic - Axon to Dendrite 3. Axoaxonic - Axon to Axon
True or false, Axoaxaonic synapses can be stimulatory and inhibitory? False, Axoaxonic synapses are always inhibitory
True or false, nerves usually synapse with many other nerves? True
What is central tendecy in regards to synaptic transmission? Postsynaptic nerves near the center of the axonal ending cone have a greater chance of passing on an action potential
True or false, the action potential is produced at the synapse? False
Membrane Threshold is lower or higher at the axon hillock? Lower
What activates calmodulin? Ca++
What does calmodulin activate? Protein Kinases that in turn phosphorylates tethering proteins that hold the neurotrnasmitter vesicles that cause release.
What is meant by Quanta realease? The same amount of neurotransmitter is released for each presynaptic action potential
What does neurotransmitters pass through between the presynaptic membrane and the post synaptic membrane? A basement membrane
Which membrane contains the receptors for neurotransmitters? Postsynaptic Membrane
Can a single excitatory input bring the soma membrane to threshold? No
What causes excitation? The opening of Na+ channels and the depression of Cl- and K+ channels
What causes inhibition? opening of Cl- channels and increased conduction of K+
What is summation? The nerve process of integrating various inputs (decision making process - to fire an action potential or not)
What is spacial summation? When 2 or more inputs arrive simultaneously and then are added and cause the membrane to depolarize twice as much.
If you add one inhibitory post synaptic potential with one excitatory post synaptic potential what effect will you have on the membrane? None - They will cancel each other out.
What is Temporal Summation? When 2 or more action potentials in a single presynaptic neuron occurs in rapid succesion and cause the postsynaptic membrane to depolarizeo hyperpolarize more than it would with a single input.
Neurotransmitters are divided into 2 groups based upon their rate of action - What are they? 1. Small molecules - Rapid acting 2. Neuropeptides - slow acting
Give examples of small rapid acting neurotransmitters: ACH, Amines, Amino Acids, and NO
Which group of neurotransmitters usually act on DNA or through secondary messenger systems? Neuropeptides
Give some examples of neuropeptides? Opioids, GI Peptides, Hypothalmic and Pituitary peptides
True or False, both neuropeptides and small molecule transmitters act by diffusion and enzymatic hydrolysis? True
Created by: Tri 2