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Fluency disorders

what are the 5 elements of fluency rate, rhythm, smoothness, effort, atomaticalit
what is disfluency the disruption of flow of speech
what qualiifies as a fluency disorder? 3 or more stuttering like disfluencies per 100 words
core features monosyllabic whole-word repetitions, part-word repetitions, sound prolongations, block
secondary behaviors emotions or attitudes towards disfluencies
prevalence of stuttering 1% of the population, currently 3 million americans stutter
incidence of stuttering 5% over life time; 15 million americans
gender ratio 3:1 at onset; 7:1 in adolescence
do more males or females stutter males
_____% recover from stuttering 75%
primary stuttering behaviors monosyllabic whole-word repetitions, part-word repetitions, sound prolongations, blocks
psychosocial behaviors avoidance (word/sound, and situation), passivity in conversation, avoids talking, fear, embarrasment
predisposing factors (constitutional factors that increase suseptibility) gender, genetics
precipitating factors developmental and environmental factors worsen stuttering (age, stress)
2 approaches to treatment stuttering modification, fluency shaping
which approach is easier? stuttering modification
what is stuttering modification teaching a person to stutter better, more fluently, light articulation
what is fluency shaping? teaching a person to speak without stuttering, reconstructing speech production
different roles of voice carries words, reflects personality, reveals physical state, delivers message and adds meaning to the message
what is resonance shaping by vibration of air in cavities of head and neck
what is the driving force for speech respiration
what are the 9 cartilages/muscles of the Larynx arytenoids, corniculates, suneiforms, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis
what is the epiglottis flap that covers larynx and protects it
faster rate of vibration of the vocal folds produces... higher pitch (more hertz)
greater pressure of air through the vocal folds causes... greater intensity (loudness) and greater distance for the vocal folds to move when opening and closing
what makes the voice sound breathy? air escapes through the vocal folds, the vocal folds don't close all the way
hypernasal too much air goes through nose
hyponasal not enough air goes through nose
what is a voice disorder abnormal production or absence of vocal quality, pitch and loudness, given individual's ge and gender
why account for age and gender when looking at voice disorders? gender- males have a deeper voice, females have a wider range; age- elderly people speak softer, puberty causes change in the voice
symptoms of voice problems harseness, vocal fatigue, breathy voice, reduced range, aphonia, pitch breaks, tremor, pain and other physical sensations
vocal abuse chronic overuse/misuse of vocal apparatus
vocally abusive behaviors talking in noisy environments, coughing, clearing throat frequently, using caffeine,smoking
who's at risk for vocal nodules? teachers, singers, children, cheerleaders
vocal hygiene, ways to protect vocal cords drink water with caffeine, yell from diaphragm, don't whisper, speak at the level you are supposed to be speaking
women: WF vibration/VF size 220 Hz, smaller size and more stretched out
men: VF vibration/ VF size 120 Hz, larger/longer, more bulky
how to make a man's voice sound more feminine? breathy phonation, lighter/softer voice, more pitch variability, more interjections (um) and hang gestures
Created by: lkp12001