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Research In Speech

Research Methods

QuestionAnswer
What is Empiricism Knowledge gained through experience and evidence (what you see/observe)
What method does empiricism use Inductive Reasoning
What is inductive reasoning Using evidence from particular cases to make inferences (specific - general)
What is Rationalism Knowledge is gained through exercises of logical thought
What method does rationalism use Deductive reasoning
What is deductive reasoning Using evidence from general observations to make inferences about particular cases
What is Basic Research? Development of knowledge for the sake of knowledge
What is Applied Research? Development of knowledge to solve problems of immediate consequence
What are the 2 basic types of research? Descriptive and Experimental
What is Descriptive research 1) examines group differences 2) develops trends 3) examines relationships among trends 4) and examines relationships among factors through the use of objective measures, various tests, surveys, or naturalistic observations
What is Experimental research Examines causation through observation
What are the steps in Scientific Research 1) statement of problem 2) delineation of method 3) presentation of the results of the method 4) drawing of conclusions from results
What is a primary source? first appearance of research results in literature
What is a secondary source? describes, explains, or interprets information contained in the primary source (review articles, textbooks)
What is a tertiary source? information collected and collated from various sources to present a broad and rudimentary overview of a topic (Brochures, encyclopedias)
What is contained in an Introduction? 1) General statement of a problem 2) Rationale for study (WHY) 3) Review of literature 4) Statement of purpose, research questions, hypothesis 5) Other
What is Quantitative Research? results are presented as quantities or numbers
What is Qualitative Research? Hypotheses emerge from observation, used to explore a phenomenon - anthropologic studies
What is an Independent Variable? What is manipulated
What is a Dependent Variable? What is measured
What is a continuous variable? rank ordering of variables on a continuum (tone intensity, stuttering frequency)
What is a categorical variable? Cannot be measured along a continuum - only be categorized or named (tones PRESENTED binaurally or monoaurally; stuttering vs. non-stuttering; pass vs. fail)
What is a bivalent experiment? 2 values of an independent variable on the dependent variable (effects of high dB vs. low dB NOISE on reading comprehension)
What is a multivalent experiment? several values of independent variables on a dependent variable
What is a parametric experiment? simultaneous effects of more than one independent variable on a dependent variable
What is descriptive research? Used to observe group differences, developmental trends, or relationships among variables that can be measured by the researchers
What is comparative research? Comparing 2 groups (DOES NOT LOOK AT CAUSATION) can be bivalent, multivalent or parametric
What is developmental research? measures changes over time
What is a longitudinal study? gives information over a long period of time
What is a cross-sectional study? selection of subjects from various age groups and a comparison of differences
What is a semi-longitudinal study Combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional (# of individuals followed for a shorter amount of time)
What is a correlational study? Does one variable change when the other variable changes? *CAN MAKE PREDICTIONS NOT CAUSE-EFFECT
What is a survey? Inspects attitude, conditions, or practices
What is a retrospective study? Examines data on file before the formulation of a research question
What are descriptive studies that are Quantitative 1) comparitive 2) developmental 3) correlational 4) survey 5) Retrospective
What are Qualitative study examples 1) Observational 2) Interview 3) Narrative 4) Case-study
What is an Observational study describe behavior as fully as possible Can be covert(subjects dont know they are being studied), overt(subjects now objectives of the study, participatory(insider's view), and structured observation(set up situation to see how subject responds)
What is an Interview? Builds an understanding about a phenomenon Can be semi-structured(open-ended and follow-up questions), unstructured(explore perspectives), and focus groups (group perspective)
What is a Narrative? Life Story
What is a case-study? in-depth information on specific individual - usually unique cases
Why do we control for variance? eliminate contamination of extraneous variables to enhance validity
What is controlled in CSD studies?, Age, type of disorder, severity of disorder, maturity, treatments, gender, SES, education, carry-over, maturity, instruments of measurement, materials, when data is gathered sequencing, setting, training of reporters, inter and intra- rater reliability
What is internal validity? the research studies what it is meant to study
What is external validity? results of study are able to be generalized to others
What is a single subject design? Focus on behaviors of individuals?
What is a group research design? focuses on behaviors of a group
What is a between-subject design? performance of separate groups of subjects are measured and comparisons are made between the groups
What is a within-subject design? compare subjects across different conditions (such as 2 treatments)
What is Nominal measurement? arbitrarily assigning a number (i.e. male=1, females=2)
What is ordinal measurement? Ranking order (1,2,3,4,5)
What is interval measurement? constant distance but no true zero (thermometer) zero does not indicate an absence of temperature
What is ratio measurement? Constant distance with a true zero value (how far you can walk in 1 hour with 0 distance = unable to walk) can indicate ratios (participant A can walk half as far as participant B = 1:2 ratio)
What is content validity? match between what we say we are measuring and what we are mesuring
What is "face validity"? Looks valid to a quick or outside view
What is criterion validity? How well the measure correlates with outside validating
What is concurrent criterion validity? can we give 1 test and make statements based on other tests
What is predictive criterion validity? Can a measure be used to predict behavior?
What is construct criterion validity? Is the test based on empirical and rational evidence?
What is reliability? dependability - degree to which we can depend on a measurement - precision/accuracy of measurement (score reflects the measure)
Can a study have validity without reliability? No
Can a study have reliability without validity? Yes
Created by: ersa0501