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Systems Phys exam 1

Rutgers Systems Physiology exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Extracellular Fluid Sodium Concentration 142 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Potassium Concentration 4 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Calcium Concentration 5 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Magnesium Concentration 3 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Chloride Concentration 103 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Bicarbonate Concentration 27 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Phosphate Concentration 2 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Sulfate Concentration 1 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Protein Concentration 16 mEq/L
Extracellular Fluid Organic Acid Concentration 5 mEq/L
Intracellular Fluid Potassium Concentration 160 mEq/L
Intracellular Fluid Magnesium Concentration 35 mEq/L
Intracellular Fluid Chloride Concentration 2 mEq/L
Intracellular Fluid Bicarbonate Concentration 8 mEq/L
Intracellular Fluid Phosphate Concentration 140 mEq/L
Total Concentration of Extracellular Fluids 154 mEq/L
Total Concentration of Intracellular Fluids 205 mEq/L
Control Center Receives and processes information from the receptor
Effector Responds to the commands of the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus
Homeostasis Refers to stability, balance, or equilibrium
Negative Feedback A reaction in which the system responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change
Positive Feedback A response which amplifies the change in a variable`
Receptor Receives information that something in the environment is changing
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells, collect oxygen in the lungs and deliver it through the blood to the body tissues
Leukocytes White blood cells, help the body to fight infectious disease and foreign objects
Simple Diffusion net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Facilitates diffusion Diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane. Water can pass through without aid of specialized protein.
Protein Pumps Transport proteins in plasma membrane transfers solutes such as small ions, amino acids, monosaccharides
Exocytosis process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell
Endocytosis capture of a substance outside the cell when the plasma membrane engulfs it and forms a vesicle
Phagocytosis cellular eating
Pinocytosis cellular drinking
Desmosomes protein rivet point between cells
Bulk Flow the collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force
Medulla control center for respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive functions
Pons Houses the control centers for respiration and inhibitory functions. Interacts with cerebellum
Cerebellum Coordinates skeletal muscles to produce smooth, graceful movements. Integrates affector neurons with effectors
Hypothalamus Involved in expression of emotions
Thalamus Pain center
Afferent Messages carry sensation such as heat, cold, pain
Autonomic System Deals with visceral organs, like the heart, stomach, glands, and the intestines
Myelin a fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the nerve fibers and facilitates the conduction of the nerve impulse
Nodes of Ranvier unmyelinated gaps between sections of myelin
Synapses Gap between two neurons; New synapses lead to learning