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Physio Ch. 12 F

components of blood formed elements and plasma
how much blood does the average person have? how much of that is formed elements and how much is plasma? 5.5 L, 2.5 L, 3.0 L
formed elements include erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets
plasma contains water primarily, gasses, ions and plasma proteins
plasma constitutes...of.. 1/5...extracellular fluid
plasma is made of...which are.. plasma proteins...solutes that are too big to move into and out of capillaries
plasma proteins establish...and fit into what categories... osmotic pressure in blood...albumins and globulins
non-functional plasma proteins are called fibrinogens
fibrinogen floats around...and is in charge of... waiting to be activated to fibrin...hemostasis
plasma also contains...which is... serum..plasma minus clotting proteins
types of blood cells erythrocytes (red), leukocytes (white), megakaryocytes
leukocytes divide into either granulocytes or agranulocytes
megakaryocytes give rise to platelets
numbers of blood cells: mm3 = microL
# of RBCs...# of WBCs...# of platelets... 5 million/microL...5-10000/microL...250-350000/microL
hematopoiesis is the formation of blood cells
what type of cell does hematopoiesis pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells divide into...then... lympoid to lymphocyte or into myeloid which goes into all other types of blood cells
pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells can be either erythrocytes, leukocytes or megakaryocytes
erythrocytes form in the...and have what shape red bone marrow...biconcave disc (high surface area to volume ratio)
blood type for erythrocytes is based on surface polysaccharides and proteins
function of erythrocytes hemoglobin
diagnostics for erythrocytes RBC count, hematocrit and anemia
hematocrit is The ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.
formation of erythrocytes occurs in the...which is... red bone marrow...trabecular bone/spongy ends of long bones and flat bones
erythropoiesis is the production of...and is stimulated by... red blod cells...hematopoietic growth factor called erythropoietin(similar to a hormone)
erythropoietin increases in response to...and there is more in males because of... decrease o2 delivery to the kidneys...testosterone levels
the kidneys produce erythrocytes and regulate levels
procrit is given to...and is... chemo patients...epoetin alpha
erythrocytes leave the bone marrow as...which... nucleus
reticulocytes' cell membrane is filled with hemoglobin to transport oxygen
reticulocytes sometimes leave the marrow before they're fully mature (1/100 RBCS)
lifespan of RBC =...and there is.. 120 days...destruction of old cells
how many old rbcs are destroyed per day 250 billion
the biconcave disc shape of...provides... RBCs...high surface area to volume ratio and large exchange surface for diffusion
major blood types A, B, AB, O, A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-
+/- refers to RH factor
surface polysaccharides and proteins are the antigens or agglutinogens (A, B, D = Rh factor)
blood type O means there are no surface antigens
if you have the antigen.. you will not produce the antibody
circulating antibodies are called...and are... agglutinin..a, b, d
for blood type AB you have which antibodies none
agglutination happens when antibody attaches to antigen
major agglutination is when...which then activates the... a recipient is given the wrong antigen...immune system to produce antibodies
what would happen if you gave a person with type A+ blood a transfusion of B+ blood? type A+ recip. has antigen A and D, and has antibody b. the donor type B+ has B and D antigen and a antibody, so major agglutination would occur because you're giving B antigen to b antibodies. (Minor agglut. would occur also-why?)
minor agglutination is when the donor blood antibodies react with recipient blood antigens
what would happen if you gave a person with type A+ blood a transfusion of A- blood type A+ recip has antigen A and D, antibody b, type A- donor has antigen A and antibodies b and d
antibodies can attach to mutltiple antigens and form complexes
only whole blood that is...will not cause... the exact same...minor or major agglutination
minor blood types are...and there are..minor blood types and...antigens known besides A and B subgroups of amajor blood type...> 200...> 600
plasma/serum causes minor agglutination only
what blood type could serve as a universal donor for packed erythrocytes with no risk of minor/major agglut? what blood type could serve as universal donor for plasma/serum transfusions with no risk of minor/major agglut? o- and AB+
erythrocytes function to transport o2, co2 and hydrogen
what transports oxygen hemoglobin(Hb)
globin is a...which means...and is the...of hemoglobin quarternary protein...more than 1 polypeptide chain...protein part
globin has 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
each chain of globin holds one heme group
heme is... which holds... o2
each hemoglobin carries 4 molecules of o2
heme is stored accoutns for how much of total body iron liver..ferritin ...25%
heme is also stored and transported blood...transferrin (recycled iron)
amounts of hemoglobin in males... is 14 +/- 2 g/dL...16 +/- g/dL
standard amount of hemoglobin is 15 g/dL
at birth how much hemoglobin do you have and why 24 g/dL because your better able to pick up o2 with different forms of hemoglobin
oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin 1.34 mL oxygen/g Hb
1.34 mL oxygen/g Hb *...=... 15 g Hb/dL whole blood...20.1 ml oxygen/dL whole blood
rbc are counted with a...and for females there are...and males there are.. hemocytometer...4.8 +/- .6 million per mm3 whole blood...5.4 +/- .8 million per mm3 whole blood (more bec of testosterone)
conditions resulting from RBC count include erythrocytopenia (low levels of RBCs) and polycythemia (high levels of RBCs)
polycythemia can either be relative or vera erythemia or 2ndary polycythemia
relative polycythemia means...because of... RBC count but normal RBC total mass...dehydration
very erythemia is..but no.. high RBC count...hypoxia(lack of o2)
2ndary polycythemia is...because of... high RBC..arterial hypoxia (low oxygen levels)
2ndary polycythemia occurs because of high altitudes after a period of time or pregnancy
hematocrit is...and its composition is rbc vs blood volume...plasma, buffy coat (leukocytes and platelets) and packed RBCs)
numbers of hematocrit in females...and males... 42% +/- 5%...47% +/- 5%
anemia is generally the ability to carry oxygen
anemia: oxygen carry capacity < 13.5 mL o2/dL whole blood
iron deficiiency anemia is a cause of anemia where you have low levels of iron
pernicious anemia means you make... intrinsic factor and B12...hemoglobin
intrinsic factor marks B12 for absorption
erythrocytopenia means... because of a lack of... low RBC count...folic acid and B12 (loss of blood)
hemorrhagic anemia excessive bleeding
hemolytic anemia RBC rupture
two types of genetic anemia's that affect production of hemoglobin are... thalassemia and sickle cell anemia
aplastic anemia is the result of faulty marrow
leukocytes are not conformed to blood but can go to tissues also
leukocytes are formed in...appear as either...function is...diagnostics are.. red bone marrow...granulocytes or agrans...immunity...WBC count
leukocytes are formed in...which is found in... red bone marrow..trabecular bone
leukocytes undergo ...which involves... hematopoiesis...hematopoietic growth factors like neulasta, myeloid and lymphoid stem cells
life span of leukocytes varies
appearance of leukocytes depends on cytoplasmic granules (granulocyte or agran) and nuclear shape (polymorphonuclear - neurtophils, eosinophils and basophils which are also all grans)
leukocytes include neutrohpils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes
neutrophils are...and perform first ones on the site...diapedesis(squeeze out of capillaries) and phagocytosis
eosinohils are like the...and they do.. clean up crew..detox and antigen-antibody complex destruction
basophils are the...because they cause... bad boys...allergies
basophils are loaded with grains so you can't really see the nucleus
basophils are very similar to...and release... mast cells in tissues...heparin(blood thinner) and histamine (inactivate inflammatory response)
monocytes have a...shaped nuclue and they can do... kidney bean...BIG...phagocytosis
lymphocytes are the... have the..and produce odd man out...most round nucleus..antibodies
wbc count is done by a...and the total(combined) wbc count is... hemocytometer...5-10,000 cells/mm3 whole blood
leukocytopenia is...and leukocytosis is... low WBC count when you're sick...high WBC count when you're sick
differential count for leukocytosis neutrophilia, basophila, eosinophilia, monocytosis, lymphocytosis
leukemia is when...and how many cells/microL whole blood WBC count is really high and stays high... > 50,000
differential WBC count determines...and what is the order of most to least individual types...NEVER LET MONKEYS EAT BANANAS(neutrophils 50-70%, lymphocytes 20, monocytes 2-8, eosinophils 3-5, basophils < 1)
hemostasis is defined as the process for maintaining blood homeostasis (stopping blood loss)
components of hemostasis platelets and clotting factors
platelets are also called...and are.. thrombocytes...membrane sacs with enzymes
platelets originate in... red bone marrow of trabecular bone
platelets undergo..with what growth factor hematopoiesis of megakaryocyte...thrombopoietin
platelets function is to assist in clot formation, form platelet plug and do vasoconstriction (reduce diameter of blood vessels)
clotting factors are...and create the...and are not equal to... plasma proteins..clotting framework..plasma plugs
process of hemostasis vasoconstriction, platelet plug, blood coagulation
vasoconstriction benefit reduce blood flow = less lost
platelet plug benefit plug hole similar to placing finger on it
blood coag benefit longer term like a natural bandaid
platelets adhere to...which is a... collagen...stimulus
when platelets bind to collagen you see the...where.. vonwillebrand factor...plasma proteins bind to collagen and platelets to get activated
platelet activation leads to chemical production of serotonin, ADP and thromboxane 2
chemical production for platelet adhesion causes... contraction of smooth muscle to reduce blood flow (vasoconstriction)
after contraction of smooth that fibrinogen receptors are activated...fibrinogen can bind to platelets
after fibrinogen receptors are activated...which creates... thromboxane 2 is produced..positive feedback (platelet aggregation)
thromboxane 2 also results in... additional vasoconstriction
aspirin blocks platelet thromboxane production so you give it during a heart attack
platelet plug is...meaning.. platelet aggregation..they stick together
platele plug occurs when platelets are exposed to...which activates... collagen..fibrinogen receptors on platelets
when fibrinogen receptors activate on platelets if forms fibrin bridges between platelets
platelet contraction occurs as a result of...and occurs in order to.. activation of actin and myosin...compress platelet plug to make hole smaller
inhibition of platelet plug in adjacent areas/undamaged endothelium
what inhibits platelet activation prostaglandin I2
nitric oxide does what vasodilation and inhibition of platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation
blood coag =... and needs... blood clotting...additional work of plasma proteins
blood coag has how many steps... 3, stage 1 = production of prothrombin converting factor, 2= conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, 3 = conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by using thrombin
blood coag stage 1 initiation occurs because of vessel damage of the extrinsic or intrinsic pathway
extrinsic pathway = ...and is the external damage(cut)...usual means of initiation
extrinsic pathway has the tissue factor - activating component from outside the blood plasma membrane protein on cells external to the endothelium
extrinsic pathway damage activates...and produces.. plasma protein VII...cascade effect
intrinsic pathway is...such as.. internal damage..cholesterol/plaque build up
intrinsic pathway activates...because of... component from inside the blood...rough surface or collagen under damaged endothelium
intrinsic pathway activates which plasma protein XII
the goal of stage 1 is prothrombin coverting factor
stage II is the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
in stage II thrombine serves as a... positive feedback to activate the intrinsic pathway
conversion of pro to thrombin gets the activation of...even though...which result sin... both pathways...original activation was via extrinsic pathway ...greater production of thrombin
stage III is the conversion of...and means... fibrinogen to fibrin...soluble fibrinogen becomes insoluble fibrin
problems with hemostasis vitamin k deficiency, hemophilia, inappropriate clots and thrombus vs embolism
vitamin K is needed for... clotting factors and liver production of prothrombin
hemophilia affects factor VIII(sometimes facor IX) and means clotting cascade doesn't happen
inappropriate clots occur because of vessel damage (fatty streaks and plaque)
thrombus is...and embolism is.. a stationary clot..a circulating clot
anticlotting systems inhibit...and include clot formation...tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin, antithrombin III
tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin and antithrombin III all do prevention of clot in the fist place
TFPI is secreted by..and partially endothelial cells...blocks extrinsic pathway(plasma proteins)
thrombin binds to...and activates... receptor on endothelial cells...protein C
protein C blocsk clotting factors V and VIII
antithrombin III is in...and is activataed by.. plasma proteins...heparin on endothelial cell surface
antithrombin III blocks...and prevents... clotting factors circulating in the blood...clot from spreading to keep it constricted
anticlotting systems also include...which help fibrinolysis..when the clot is already formed and needs to be removed
fibrinolysis is done by plasmin and other plasminogen activators
plasmin is an...tat.. enzyme..cuts up fibrin
plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator in the...are blood stream..incorporated into the clot
tissue plasminogen activators are given as clot-busting drugs during active heart attacks and strokes
plasmin breaks down fibrin
other plasminogen activator drugs include recombinant t-Pa AND DESMODUS ROTUNDUS SALIVARAY PLASMINOGEN ACTIVAOR (DSPA) in vampire bat saliva
anticlotting drugs include COX enzyme, COX inhibitors, heparin and warfarin/coumadin
cox enzyme is in the...and it does what... cell membrane of platelets...catalyzes plaetelt production of thromboxane A2 (which cox makes and it activates platelets)
cox inhibitors inhibit the formation of thromboxane A2 (inhibits platelet aggregation)
problem with COX inhibitors... they act on all COX enzymes
cox enzyme is in...and it does what...which is necessary to cell membrane of endothelial cells...catalyzes endothelial cell production of prostaglandin I2...prevent spread of platelet plug
why do COX inhibitors negatively affect platelets but not endothelial cell production of prostaglandin I2? platelets are cell fragments that can't make new proteins bec they have no nucleus but endothelial cells can make new COX enzymes
heparin activates...which inactivates antithrombin III...thrombin
the inactivation of thrombin means no further stimulation of the intrinsic pathway and no further conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
warfarin or coumadin is...and inhibits... rat poisoning...vitamin K recycling
warfarin prevents formation of plasma proteins that act as clotting factors
Created by: handrzej



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