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computers bus is the circuit or signaling pathway used by the motherboard to transmit data to the pc components ,including its memory ,processor,hard disk and nic
computers bus system bus main bus
a data path size equals the number of bits that it can transmit in parallel at any given rate
PCIe bus most popular expansion board NIC today
PCIe slot can support up to 32 lanes
device driver software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computers operating system
GBIC gigabit interface converter
sfp small form factor pluggable transceviers
gbic standard type of modular interface
small form factor pluggable provide the same function as a gbic but allow more ports per inch
sfp standards enable these transceivers to send and receive data at rates up to 10 Gbps
gbic standard type of modular interface designed in the 1990s for gigabit ethernet connections
repeaters simplest type of connectivity devices that regenerate a digital signal
repeaters do not interpret the data they retransmit
repeaters suited only to bus topologies
repeaters extend a network inexpensively
hub repeater with more then one output port
gbic ability to transmit at gigabit speed if it is not a gigabit switch
hub repeater with more then one output port
uplink port allows the hub to connect to another hub or connectivity device
repeaters operate at the physical layer of the osi model
bridges devices that connect two network segments by analyzing incoming frames and making decisions about where to direct them based on each frames MAC address
bridges operate at the data link layer of the osi model
bridges one input one output port but can interpret physical addressing information
bridges protocol independent
bridges analyze incoming frames and decides where to direct them
bridges contains known mac addresses and network location
bridges extend a network without further extending a collision domain or segment
filtering database a collection of known MAC address and their locations on a network
switches connectivity devices that subdivide a network into smaller logical pieces or segments
switches interpret MAC address information
switch interprets mac address info to determine whether to filter,discard,or forward packets it receives
switches multiple ports which can make better use of bandwidth than bridges
common switch components internal processor,operating system,memory,ports
two advantages of switches better security better performance
switch turns a shared channel into several channels
each port on a switch acts like a bridge each device connected to a switch effectively receives its own dedicated channel
each dedicated channel represents a collision domain
switching methods cut thru mode store and forward mode
cut thru mode reads a frames header and decides where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet
on most switches the uplink port is directly wired to its adjacent port inside the device
runts erroneously shortened packets
cut thu switches cannot detect corrupt packets
switches give each node a dedicated channel
cut thu mode runt detected,wait for integrity check
cut thru mode most significant advantage speed because it does not stop to read the entire packet just the first fourteen bytes
runts erroneously shortened packets
cut thu switches cannot detect corrupt packets
switches give each node a dedicated channel
cut thu mode runt detected,wait for integrity check
cut thru mode most significant advantage speed because it does not stop to read the entire packet just the frame header
cut thru mode disadvantage data buffering,switch flooded with traffic
cut thru switches best suited to small workgroups with a low number of devices in which speed is important
store and forward mode switch reads entire data frame into memory
store and forward mode checks for accurancy before transmitting
store and forward mode transmits data more accurately but more slowly
store and forward mode can transfer data between segments running different transmission speeds
vlan virtual local area network
vlans logically separate networks within networks by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain
vlans group ports into broadcast domains
broadcast domain port combination making a layer 2 segment
broadcast domain ports rely on layer two devicess to forward broadcast frames
collision domain ports in same broadcast domain
collision domain do not share a single channel
reasons for using vlans separating groups of users who need special security or network functions
reasons for using vlans connect multiple nodes across my network but have them logically function on one network
reasons for using vlans flexible
reasons for using vlans isolating connections with heavy or unpredictable traffic patterns
reasons for using vlans identifying priority device groups
reasons for using vlans grouping legacy protocol devices
reasons for using vlans separating large network into smaller subnets
reasons for using vlans allows visitors access to minimal network functions
a switch is typically preconfigured with one default vlan that includes all its ports
broadcast domain subnet
802.1q specifies how vlan information appears in frames and how switches interpret that information
switches seperate collision domains
once you create a vlan you also maintain it via the switch's software
potential problem in creating vlans by grouping certain nodes you are not merely including those nodes-you are excluding another group
trunk physical connection between switches
to keep the data belonging to each vlan separate each frame is identified with a vlan identifier,or tag.
critical step in creating vlans indicate which vlan each port belongs to
vlan trunking protocol allows one switch on a network to centrally manage all vlans
access port used for connecting nodes that can only exchange information with the switch
vlan disadvantage cutting off the group from the rest of the network
trunking switchs interface carries traffic of multiple vlans
vlan data separation frame contains vlan identifier in header
in the context of switching a trunk is a single physical connection between switches thru which many logical vlans can transmit and receive data
spanning tree protocol iee standard 802.1d and function sin the data layer
stp prevents traffic loops by calculating paths that avoid potential loops and by artificially blocking the links that would complete a loop
stp can adapt to changes in the network
root bridge will provide the basis for all subsequent path calculations
one root bridge exits on a network from it a series of logical branches,data paths,emanate
bridge ID combination o a 2-byte priority field and the bridges mac address
stp disables links that are not part of the shortest path
rapid spanning tree protocol ieee 802.1w
stp operates in data link layer
rstp can detect and correct for link failures
switches operate in layer two of the osi
routers operate in layer three
stp prevents traffic loops
stp artifically blocking links completeing loops
hubs operate in layer one
stp three steps select root bridge based on bridge id
stp three steps examine possible paths between network and root bridge
stp three steps disable links not part of the shortest path
layer three switch routing switch
switches that operate anywhere between layer four and layer seven content switches
application switches the ability to interpret higher layer data enables switches to perform advanced filtering,statistics keeping and security functions
router multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network
when a router receives an incoming packet it reads the packets logical addressing in formation
network layer protocols direct data from one segment or type of network to another
content switch interprets layer four thru layer seven data
content and multilayer switches advantages advanced filtering, keeping statistics, security function
routers are slower than switches and bridges because they take time to interprt information in layer three and higher
routers determine the shortest fastest path between two nodes
vlans connect different subnets
router directs data between network nodes
routers protocol dependent,designed to recognize a protocol before they can use it
switches protocol independent
routers reroute traffic if a primary path is down but anoher path is available
interior router directs data between nodes on an autonomous lan,a single network,interior traffic
exterior router directs data between nodes outside a given autonomous lan,for example routers used on the internets backbone
border routers connects an autonomous lan with an exterior network,for example the router that connects a business to its isp
gateway routers border router
static routing technique in which a router is programmed to use a specific path between nodes
dynamic routing automatically calculates the best path between two nodes and accumulates the info in a routing table
dynamic routing if congestion or failure affects the network a router can detect the problems and reroute data thru a different path
router capabilities reroute traffic,interpret layer three addressing,connect dissimiliar networks
best path the most efficient route from one node on a network to another
routing tables identify which routers serve which hosts
routing protocols the means by which routers communicate with each other about network status
routing protocols determine the best path to take between nodes
routing metric determines the best path for data to follow over a network
convergence time the time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the event of a change or a network outage
distance vector routing protocol determine the best route for data based on the distance to a destination
routing information protocol oldest routing protocol,only factors in number of hops between nodes
interior gateway protocol routing protocol that can only route data within an autonomous internal network
routing information protocol version two generates less broadcast traffic and functions more securely cannot exceed fifteen hops
border gateway protocol a distance vector routing protocol capable of considering many factors in its routing metrics.routing protocol used on internet backbones
exterior gateway protocol routing protocol that can span multiple,autonomous networks
enhanced interior gateway protocol routing protocol that has a fast convergence time and a low network overhead,but it is easier to configure and less CPU intensive that ospf
link state routing protocol enables routers across a network to share information,after which each router can independently map the network and determine the best path between itself and a packets destination node
ospf open shortest path first
routing protocols dependent on hops between nodes
routing protocols dependent on current network activity
routing protocols dependent on unavailable link
routing protocols dependent on network transmission speed
routing protocols dependent on topology
rip distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its routing metric and allows up to fifteen hops
ospf a link state routing protocol used on interior or border routers,no hop limit
bgp communicates using bgp specific messages, many factors determine best paths
link state routing protocol one that enables routers across a network to share information
link state protocol routers share information
link state protocol open shortest path first
border gateway protocol distance vector protocol suited to wans
IS IS intermediate system to intermediate system
is is link state routing protocol
is is type of igp
hybrid routing protocols combined link state and distance vector protocols
eigrp fast convergence time,low network overhead
eigrp supports multiple protocols
gateways combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks
gateways resides on servers,microcomputers,connectivity devices or mainframes
gateways they may connect two systems that use different formatting,communication protocols, or architecture
firewalls gateway that selectively blocks or filters traffic between networks
Created by: cgeaski