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networks chapter 5


physical topology physical layout
bus topology single cable that connects all the nodes on a network without intervening connectivity device
backbone the part of network to which segments and significant shared devices,such as routers or switches, connect.network of networks
physical topology depicts the broad scope
physical topology shapes bus,star,ring,hybrid
bus bus
node device on a network
passive topology each node listens for,then accepts,data directed at it
physical topology does not specify device types,connectiviy methods,addressing schemes
terminators stop signals after they have reached the end of the wire
signal bounce signals on a bus network would travel endlessly between the two ends of a wire
terminators halt the transmission of old signals
the more nodes on a bus network the more slowly the data transmits
bus networks difficult to troubleshoot identify pc at fault
fault tolerant capability of a system to keep working when damage happens
bus networks not fault tolerant
ring topology each node is connected to the two nearest nodes to form a circle
ring topology data transmmitted clockwise,one direction
each workstation in a ring topology acts as a repeater
difference between ring and bus topology ring is an active topology
active topology all workstations make the delivery
ring topology are no ends,data stops when it reaches its destination
star topology every node on a network is connected thru a central device
router or switch connecting device in a ring topology
star topology every cable connectes two devices
logical network star topologies can support a maximum of only 1024 addressable nodes
star topology more fault tolerant
star topologies are flexible include a centralized connection point
hybrid topology combination of topologies
hybrid topologies star wired ring, star wired bus
star wired ring topology uses the physical layout of a star in conjunction with the ring logical topology
star wired bus groups of workstations are star connected to connectivity devices and then networked via a single bus
logical topology the way in which data are transmitted between nodes,not the physical layout
passive topolgy uses broadcast to send
logical topologies bus and ring
broadcast domain logically grouped network nodes that can communicate directly
serial backbone simplest kind of backbone
serial backbone consists of two or more devices connected to each other by a single medium in a daisy chain
terminators removes static electricity
terminators 50 ohm resistors
daisy chain a linked series of devices
serial backbone networks only so many repeating devices can be connected in a serial fashion
distributed backbone more scalable and fault tolerant network
bus topology advantage inexpensive and easy to set up
distributed backbone a number of intermediate connectivity devices connected to one or more central connectivity devices
distributed backbone advantages simple expansion
distributed backbone provides network admins with the ability to segregate workgroups,manage easily
distributed backbone disadvantages
collapsed backbone uses a router or switch as the single central connection point for multiple subnetworks
ring topology physical medium twisted pair of fiber optic cabling
collapsed backbone router or switch is the highest layer of the backbone
collapsed backbone router or switch carries heavy traffic
drawback collapsed backbone router goes down the network goes down
collapsed backbone allows you to interconnect different types of subnetworks,centrally manage maintenance and troubleshoot devices
parallel backbone consists of more than one connection from the central router or switch to each network segment
circuit switching a connection is established between two network nodes before they begin transmitting data.
switching a component of a networks logical topology that manages how packets are filtered and forwarded between nodes on the network
packet switching data are broken into packets before being transported
multiprotocol label switching enables any one of several layer 2 protocols to carry multiple types of layer 3 protocols
csma/cd carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
circuit switching bandwidth is dedicated to this connection and remains available until the users terminate the connection between two nodes
packet switching packets can travel on the network to their destination because each packet contains a destination address and sequencing information
multiprotocol label switching ability to use packet switched technologies over traditionally circuit switched networks
multiprotocol label switching can create end to end paths that act like circuit switched connections
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection network access method for use by ieee 802.3 networks
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection each node waits its turn before transmitting data to avoid interfering with other nodes transmissions
collision two transmissions interfere with each other
hubs dumb devices,direct traffic with no thinking
collision domain the way nodes respond to a collision detection
most popular fundamental layout star topology
jamming a station issues a thirty two bit sequence to indicate to all nodes on an ethernet segment that its previously transmitted frame has suffered a collision and should be considered faulty
pure bus,ring,star topologies rarely exist too restrictive
star wired ring topolgy star physical ring logical
carrier sense ethernet nics listen on the network and wait until they detect or sense that other nodes are transmitting data over the signal,carrier on the communications channel before they begin to transmit
signal carrier
multiple access several ethernet nodes can be connected to a network and can monitor traffic,or access media simultaneously
csma/cd node wants to send data it first checks to make sure the channel is free,if its busy it waits until is is free
ethernet most popular network technology used on moden lans
ethernet flexible technology that can run on a variety of network media
broadcast domain logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer. A broadcast domain can be within the same LAN segment or it can be bridged to other LAN segments
ethernet offers excellent throughput at a reasonable cost
logical topology how devices appear connected to the user
physical topology how they are actually interconnected with wires and cables
backbone networks cabling connecting hubs, switches, routers
backbone networks more throughput
large organizations fiber optic backbone network
enterprise wide network backbones complex difficult to plan
enterprise networking terms refers to an organization,including its remote and local offices,
significant building block of an enterprise backbone
collision domain plays a role in the ethernet cabling distance limitations
collision domain switches and routers seperate
repeaters repeat the collision domain signals
serial backbone standards certain number of repeating devices allowed
data propagation delay length of time data take to travel from one point on the segment to another point
distributed backbone connected to a heirarchial system of devices
ethernet frames A data packet on an Ethernet link A frame
ethernet frames ends with a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check which is used to detect any corruption of data in transit
ethernet frame begins with preamble and start frame delimiter.
distributed backbone drawback potential for single failure points
start of frame delimiter identifies where the data begins
ethernet frames contain a four byte frame check sequence
ethernet framing DIX ethernet
ethernet II uses a two byte field
ethernet II identifies the network layer protocol,ip or arp,contained in the frame
ethernet II most commonly used on contemporary ethernet networks
802.3af specifies a method for supplying electrical power over ethernet connections
802.3af power over ethernet
PoE standard specifies two types of devices power sourcing equipment, powered devices
pse refers to the device that supplies the power
PD those that receive power from the pse
ieee physical layer standards specify how signals are transmitted to the media
parallel backbone requires duplicate connections between connectivity devices
10 represents maximum throughput
base baseband transmission
t twisted pair or medium it uses
5 4 3 rule no more then five network segments connected by four repeating devices, and no more then three of the segments
switching determines now connections are created between nodes
circuit switching data follows same initial path selected by switch
circuit switching monopolizes bandwidth while connected
circuit switching uses live audio, video conferencing, traditional telephone calls
packet switching packets travel any network path to destination
packet switching packets find fastest circuit available at any instant
packet switching packets need not follow each other
packet switching packets need not arrive in sequence
packet switching packets reassembled at destination
packet switching most popular
fast ethernet ieee 802.3u standard
100base-t networks do not follow the 5 4 3 rule
ethernet standards for copper cable 10base-t, 100base-t, 100base-t, 10gbase-t
ethernet standards for fiber optic cable 100base-fx,1000base-Lx,100base-sx
ten gigabit fiber optic standards 10gbase-sr and 10gbase-sw, 10gbase-Lr and 10gbase-Lw, 10gbase-er and 10gbase-ew
mesh topology wan a type of wan in which several sites are directly interconnected.
mesh topology wan highly fault tolerant because they provide multiple routes for data to follow between any two points
mesh topology network topology in which devices are connected with many redundant interconnections between network nodes. In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network.
dynamic dns
primary benefit of 10GBase-T makes very fast data transmission available at a much lower cost than using fiber optic cable
the 100Base-FX standard uses a star topology with its repeaters connected in a bus fashion
an excellent choice for long backbones 1000Base-LK because of its potential length
1000Base-T acheives a higher throughput by using all four pairs of wiress to both transmit and receive signals
truncate data frames shrink them
maximum segment length 1000Base-t network 100 meters with only one repeater allowed
10GBase-t segments require Cat 6, Cat 6a, or Cat 7
ethernet network design with switches and routers seperate collision domains
ethernet network design with repeaters will repeat collision domain
100 Base-FX standard uses baseband transmission and fiber optic cabling
100 Base-FX standard requires multimode fiber
100 or 1000 Mbps networks three segment maximum connected with two repeating devices
10 Mbps five segment connected with four repeating devices
the most common 1 gigabit ethernet used 1000Base-LX
LX represents long wavelength
jamming indicaes to the rest of the nodes that its transmission was faulty
SX represents short wavelength
throughput the amount of data that a medium can transmit during a given time
bandwidth a measure of the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit
10Base-T full duplex transmission
baseband single channel ethernet
ethernet cable 8 wires four pairs
100Base-T fast ethernet
100Base-T baseband transmission and star topology
100Base-T maximum length 100 meters
single mode fiber fiber optic cable with a narrow core that carries light pulses along a single path data from one end of the cable to the other end.transmitted faster then multimode
multimode fiber fiber optic cable that contains a core diameter between 50 and 100 microns thru which many pulses of light generated by a light emitted diode
modal bandwidth measure of the highest frequency of signal a multimode fiber can support over a specific distance and is measured in mhz-km
1000Base-T four pair of wires used,maximum segment length 100 meters,one repeater
10GBase-t very fast data transmission,cheaper then fiber optic
10GBase-t uses connect network devices,connect servers,workstations to LAN
maximum transmission speed of 100 meters 100Base-TX; 100Base-T;10GBase-T
100Base-FX 100-mbps throughput,baseband,fiber-optic cabling
FX fiber optic cable
two strands zip cord
half duplex mode on 100Base-FX half duplex mode 412 meters,one strand receives one transmits
100Base-FX one repeater maximum length
the higher the modal bandwidth the longer a multimode fiber can carry a signal reliably
100Base-FX;1000Base-LX;1000Base-SX;10GBase-SR;10GBase-SW use multimode fiber
1000Base-LX relies on single mode or multimode fiber
1000Base-LX one repeater between segments
maximum segment length on a 10GBase-SR or 10GBase-SW network depends on the diameter of the fiber used and the modal bandwidth used
1000Base-SX maximum segment length dependencies are: fiber diameter,modal bandwidth
W reflects its unique method of coding that allows it to work over SONET WAN links
E extended reach
10GBase-ER and 10GBase-EW best suited for use on WANs
SONET synchronous optical network
SONET a higher bandwidth wan signaling technique that specifies framing and multiplexing techniques at the physical layer of the osi model
r works with lan fiber connections
w works with sonet fiber connections
10GBase-LR WAN or MAN
10GBase-LW SONET WAN links
carrier ethernet marketing term for extensions to Ethernet to enable telecommunications network providers ("common carriers" in US industry jargon) to provide Ethernet services to customers and to utilize Ethernet technology in their networks
10GBase-EW encoding for SONET,best suited for wan use
in mpls the first router that receives a packet adds one or more labels to the Layer 3 datagram in the shim
multipacket label switching offers potentially faster transmission with better quality of service guarantees
ethernet frame types ethernet_802.2; ethernet 802.3; ethernet II; ethernet snap
ethernet 802.2 raw
ethernet 802.3 novell proprietary
ethernet II DIX
ethernet frame types need to know the fram type for troubleshooting
ethernet frame fields size ranges from 64 to 1518 bytes
ethernet frame characteristics fourteen byte header,four byte frame check sequence,seven byte preamble,one byte start of frame delimiter
ethernet II most commonly used ethernet frame
Created by: cgeaski