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LingChapter2

Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
Phonetics The branch of linguistics that examines the inventory and structure of the sounds of language
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The universal system for transcribing the sounds of speech, which has been developed since 1888
Articulatory Phonetics An approach to phonetics that studies the physiological mechanisms of speech production
Acoustic Phonetics An approach to phonetics that is concerned with measuring and analyzing the physical properties of sound waves produced when we speak
Vowels Sounds that are produced with little obstruction in the vocal tract and that are generally voiced
Syllabic Liquids Liquids that function as syllabic nuclei (e.g. the l in bottle)
Syllabic Nasals Nasals that function as syllabic nuclei (e.g. the n in button)
Non-Syllabic Sounds: Consonants Sounds that are produced with a narrow or complete closure in the vocal tract
Non-Syllabic Sounds: Glides Sounds that are produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, but move quickly to another articulation (e.g. [j], [w])
Voiced The glottal state in which the vocal folds are brought close together, but not tightly closed, causing air passing through them to vibrate (e.g. [z], [m])
Voiceless The glottal sate in which the vocal folds are pulled apart, allowing air to pass directly through the glottis (e.g. [t], [s], [f])
Oral Sounds Sounds produced with the velum raised and the airflow through the nasal passage cut off
Nasal Sounds Sounds produced by lowering the velum, allowing air to pass through the nasal passages
Places of Articulation The points at which the airstream can be modified to produce different sounds
Labial A place feature that characterizes sounds articulated with one or both lips (e.g. ([f], [b], [w])
Dentals Sounds made with the tongue placed against or near the teeth
Alveolar Ridge The small ridge that protrudes from just behind the upper front teeth
Alveopalatal (area) The area just behind the alveolar ridge where the roof of the mouth rises sharply (Also called the palataoalveolar)
Palatals Sounds produced with the tongue on or near the palate (e.g. [J])
Velars Sounds made with the tongue touching or near the velum (e.g. [k])
Uvulars Sounds made with the tongue near or touching the uvula
Glottals Sounds produced by using the vocal folds as the primary articulators (e.g. [h])
Pharyngeals Sounds made through the modification of airflow in the pharynx by retracting the tongue or constricting the pharynx
Manners of Articulation The various configurations produced by positioning the lips, tongue, velum, and glottis in different ways (e.g. nasal, fictive, liquid)
Stops Sounds made with a complete and momentary closure of airflow through the vocal tract (e.g. the initial sounds of pleasure and grab)
Fricatives Non-sonorant consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth, accompanied by a continuous audible noise (e.g. [f])
Affricates Non-continuant consonants that show a slow release of closure
Liquids Special class of consonants
Glides Sounds that are produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, but move quickly to another articulation (e.g. [j)], [w])
Tongue Position: High A dorsal feature that characterizes sounds produced with the tongue body raised
Tongue Position: Low A dorsal feature that characterizes vowels made with the tongue body distinctly lowered from a central position in the oral cavity
Tongue Position: Back A dorsal feature that characterizes sounds articulated behind the palatal region in the oral cavity
Front Vowel A vowel this is made with the tongue positioned in the front of the oral cavity (e.g. the vowel sounds in seal and bat)
Tense (feature) A dorsal feature that that captures the tense-lax distinction among vowels
Lax Vowel A vowel that is made with a placement of the tongue that results in relatively less vocal tract constriction (e.g. the vowel sounds in hit and but)
Rounded (sounds) Sounds made with the lips protruding (e.g. [u], [w])
Unrounded (sounds) Sounds made without rounding of the lips
Suprasegmental Properties (Or Prosodic Properties) Those properties of sounds that form part of their makeup no matter what their place or manner of articulation: pitch, loudness, and length
Tone Pitch movement in spoken utterances that is related to differences in word meaning
Intonation Pitch movement in spoken utterances that is not related to differences in word meaning
Stressed Vowels Vowels that are perceived as relatively more prominent due to the combined effects of pitch, loudness, and length
Segments Individual speech sounds
Feature (phonetic) The smallest unit of analysis of phonological structure, combinations of which make up segments (e.g. [nasal], [continuant])
Vocal Folds (Vocal Cords) A set of muscles inside the larynx that may be positioned in various ways to produce different glottal states
Pharynx The area of the throat between the uvula and the larynx
Vocal Tract The oral cavity, nasal cavity, and pharynx
Intercostals The muscles between the ribs that help to maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production
Diaphragm The large sheet of muscle that separates teh chest cavity from teh abdomen and helps to maintain the air pressure necessary for speech production
Trachea The tube below the larynx through which air travels when it leaves the lungs; commonly known as the windpipe
Larynx The box-like structure located in the throat through which air passes during speech production, commonly known as the voicebox
Thyroid cartilage The cartilage that forms the main portion of the larynx, spreading outward like the head of a plow
Cricoid Cartilage The ring-shaped cartilage in the larynx on which the thyroid cartilage rests
Arytenoids Two small cartilages in the larynx that are attached to the vocal folds, enabling teh vocal folds to be drawn together or apart
Glottis The space between the vocal folds
Whisper The glottal state in which the vocal folds are adjusted so that the front portions are pulled close together, while the back portions are apart
Murmur (Breathy Voice) The glottal state that produces voiced sounds with the vocal folds relaxed enough to allow enough air to escape to produce a simultaneous whispery effect
Syllable A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it
Nucleus (of a syllable) The element around which a syllable is built. Nuclei are usually vowels or diphthongs, but some languages allow certain sonorant consonants to function in this way as well
Tongue Tip The narrow area at the front of the tongue
Tongue Blade The area of the tongue just behind the tip
Tongue Body The main mass of the tongue
Tongue Back The part of the tongue that is hindmost but still lies in the mouth
Tongue Dorsum The body and back of the tongue
Interdentals Sounds made with the tongue placed between the teeth
Palate The highest part of the roof of the mouth
Palatals Sounds produces with the tongue on or near the palate (e.g. [J])
Velum The soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth
Labiovelars Sounds made with the tongue raised near the velum and the lips rounded at the same time (e.g. the initial sound of wound)
Uvula The small fleshy flap of tissue that hangs down form the vellum
Continuant A manner of feature that characterizes sounds made with free or nearly free airflow through the oral cavity: vowels, fricatives, glides, and liquids)
Strident A place feature that characterizes the "noisy" fricatives and affricate (also called Sibilants)
Aspiration The lag in the onset of vocalic voicing, accompanied by the release of air, that is heard after the release of certain stops in English (e.g. the first sound of top is aspirated)
Laterals Sounds made with the sides of the tongue lowered (e.g. varieties of l)
Diacritic A mark added to a phonetic symbol to alter its value in some way (e.g. a circle under a symbol to indicate voicelessness)
Retroflex The r made by either curling the tongue tip back into the mouth or by bunching the tongue upward and back in the mouth
Flap A sound commonly identified with r in some languages and produced when the tongue tips strikes the alveolar ridge as it passes across it (e.g. in NA English, the medial consonant in bitter and bidder)
Simple Vowels (Monophthongs) Vowels that do not show a noticeable change in quality during their production
Diphthong A vowel that shows a noticeable change in quality during its production (e.g. the vowel sounds in house and ride)
Mid Vowel A vowel that that is made with the tongue neither raised nor lowered (e.g. the vowel sounds in set and coke)
Schwa (Reduced Vowel) The lax vowel that is characterized by briefer duration than any of the other vowels (e.g. the underlined vowels in Canada, suppose)
Pitch The auditory property of a sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from low to high
Loudness The auditory property of a sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from soft to loud
Length The auditory property of sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from short to long
Tone Language A language in which differences in word meaning are signalled by differences in pitch
Association Line A line linking a symbol that represents a sound segment with a symbol that represents a tone or feature
Register Tones Level tones that signal meaning differences
Contour Tones Moving pitches on a single segment that signal meaning differences
Terminal (Intonation) Contour Falling intonation at the end of an utterance, signalling that the utterance is complete
Non-Terminal (Intonation) Contour Rising or level intonation at the end of an utterance, often signalling that the utterance is incomplete
Downdrift The maintenance of a distinction among the pitch registers of an utterance even as the overall pitch of the utterance falls
Primary Stress The most prominent stress of a word
Secondary Stress The second most prominent stress in a word
Coarticulation One sound influencing the articulation of the other in a sequence of phonetic segments (e.g.in the sequence [pl], the tongue tip will start to move towards the alveolar ridge before the lips separate; more that one articulator is active)
Assimilation The influence of one segment on another, resulting in a sound becoming more like a nearby sounds in terms of one or more of its phonetic characteristics (e.g. in English, vowels become nasal if followed by a nasal consonant)
Regressive Assimilation Assimilation in which a sound influences a preceding segment (e.g. nasalization in English)
Progressive Assimilation Assimilation in which a sound influences a following segment (e.g., liquid-glide devoicing in English)
Voicing Assimilation Assimilation in which one segment becomes more like a nearby segment in terms of voicing (e.g. liquid-glide devoicing in English)
Devoicing Voicing assimilation in which a sound becomes voiceless because of a nearby voiceless sound (e.g. the l in place is devoiced because of the voiceless stop preceding it)
Voicing A historical process in which a voiceless sound becomes voiced
Flapping An assimilation process in which a dental or alveolar stop ([-continuant]) changes to a flap [+continuant]) in the environment of other continuants
Dissimilation A process whereby one segment becomes less like another segment in its environment (e.g. anma 'soul' in latin became alma in spanish)
Deletion A process that removes a segment from certain phonetic contexts (e.g. the pronunciation of fifths as [fifs])
Epenthesis A process that inserts a segment into a particular environment
Metathesis A process that reorders a sequence of segments
Vowel Reduction A process that reduces a full vowel, typically unstressed, to a schwa
Sonorant A major class feature that characterizes all and only the "singables": vowels, glides, liquids, and nasals
Created by: 506936968