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Mycology Glossary

Glossary of Mycology Fall 2007

QuestionAnswer
Aerial hyphae/mycelium hyphae above the agar surface
Alternate used to describe arthroconidia in a chain separated by cells which break down to release the conidia
Anamorph asexual, ”imperfect” reproductive stage
Annellide a conidiogenous cell which elongates and leaves a scar ring with the production of each conidium
Anthropophilic dermatophytes that are restricted to human hosts
Antler hyphae hyphae terminating in broad irregular branches resembling antlers
Arthroconidium conidia formed in chains by the breaking up of a hyphae at the point of septation. The resulting cell may be rectangular or barrel shaped and thick or thin walled, depending on the genus.
Ascocarp fruiting structure of the sexual reproductive stage with internally formed asci
Ascospore sexual spore produced in a sac-like structure known as an ascus. Commonly there are 4 to 8 ascospores in an ascus.
Ascus a sac like structure that contains ascospores
Aseptate hyphae without cross walls. Characteristic of Zygomycetes.
Biseriate a vesicle in Aspergillus bearing two layers of cells - metulae and phialides
Blastoconidium conidium formed by budding along a hyphae, pseudohyphae, or single cell, as in the yeasts.
Chlamydospore thick-walled somewhat resistant structure formed at end of hyphae (terminal) or in the middle of hyphae (intercalary). Also a vesicle formed by Candida albicans.
Clamp connection small, curved hyphal outgrowth at a septum forms a looped bridge between two adjacent cells. Formed only in Basidiomycetes.
Clavate club-shaped
Cleistothecium round or oval sexual fruiting body without an opening and with asci irregularly dispersed in centre
Collarette flared or straight-sided cell wall remnant at the tip of a phialide or base of a columella
Columella dome-shaped top of a sporangiophore, contained in a sporangium
Conidiogenous structure that produces conidia
Conidioma an asexual, conidium-bearing structure
Conidiophore specialized hyphal structure that serves as a stalk on which conidia are formed
Conidium (pl. conidia) asexual reproductive structure that forms externally on the side or the end of the hyphae or conidiophore
Cottony texture high dense aerial mycelium
Dematiaceous hyphae, conidia, or spores that are brown to black
Denticle small hair-like projection on which a solitary conidium is formed
Dichotomous branching of hyphae into two equal branches that are each equal in diameter to the hyphae from which they originated
Dimorphic having two distinct forms. Usually grow filamentously under environmental conditions and convert to special parasitic form (often yeast) in vivo.
Ectothrix infection around the outside of the hair shaft
Endospore spore produced within the spherule of Coccidioides immitis
Endothrix infection with arthroconidia within the hair shaft
Exudate droplets of liquid on the surface of a colony
Favic chandeliers hyphae terminating in broad irregular branches resembling antlers. Typical of Trichophyton schoenleinii.
Faviform blunt, branched hyphal ends
Foot cell in Aspergillus, a hyphal cell at the conidiophore base.
Geophilic usually recovered from soil, occasionally infect humans and animals
Glabrous smooth; without or almost without aerial hyphae.
Globose round
Granular dense conidia on surface of colony; resembling sugar granules
Hulle cell refractile, thick-walled cell, varying in shape, which occurs in some Aspergillus species
Hyaline not pigmented, colourless.
Hyphae septate or aseptate filament of a fungus; many together compose the mycelium.
Intercalary forming in the middle of a hyphae
Metulae branch upon which a conidiogenous cell is borne; on a vesicle in Aspergillus or terminal branches in Penicillium
Microconidium the smaller of two types of conidia produced by the same fungus
Moniliform hyphae with swellings at regular intervals like a string of beads
Muriform having both transverse and longitudinal septa
Nodular bodies knot of twisted hyphae
Onychomycosis infection of the nails
Ostiole opening in wall of fruiting body through which conidia are released
Ovoid egg-shaped
Pectinate hyphal ends which have protuberances resembling a comb
Pedicel short filament which attaches a conidium to the hyphae
Penicillus brush-like conidiogenous structure with 1-3 levels of branches called metulae and a terminal phialide
Perithecium flask-shaped or rounded fruiting body with opening (ostiole) and asci arranged at base of structure
Phialide flask shapped conidiogenous cell which neither elongates nor enlarges
Powdery texture profusion of conidia on surface of colony; resembles flour
Pseudohyphae chains of cells formed by budding that, when elongated, resemble true hyphae; they differ from true hyphae by being constricted at the septa, forming branches that begin with a septation, and having terminal cells smaller than the other cells.
Pycnidium conidioma in which conidiogenous cells line the interior cavity and are released through an opening or ostiole; formed by Coelomycetes
Pyriform pear-shaped or teardrop-shaped
Racquet hyphae hyphae with club-shaped cells, the larger end of one cell being attached to the smaller end of an adjacent cell.
Reflexive branching branches that grow forward and backward at acute angles to the hyphae
Rhizoid root-like, branched hyphae
Rugose topography colony in which furrows radiate out from the centre
Sclerotium hyphae closely interwoven and cemented together into a hard resistant body
Scotch Tape Mount The scotch tape mount is used for examining the microscopic structures of filamentous fungi. With forceps pick up a piece of clear, transparent tape and touch the surface of the colony. Place the tape onto a drop of mounting media on a slide; add another
Septate having cross walls
Sessile arising from side of hyphae or conidiogenous cell
Spherule large, round structure containing endospores; characteristic of Coccidioides immitis in infected host material under direct microscope examination. Spherules do not grow on routine artificial mycology media.
Spiral hyphae hyphae forming coiled or corkscrew-like turns
Sporangiophore specialized hyphal branch or stalk bearing a sporangium
Sporangiospore asexual spore produced in a sporangium
Sporangium closed sac-like structure in which asexual spores (sporangiospores) are formed. The sporangium is borne on a stalk known as the sporangiophore.
Stolon horizontal, aerial (runner) hyphae which gives rise to rhizoids and sporangiophores
Sympodial a succession of conidia formed on opposite sides of hyphal stalk so that the axis pushes past the terminal conidium to form a zig-zag structure
Teleomorph sexual reproductive stage of a fungus
Thallus fungal colony, mycelium
Truncate conidium with a scar flattened off at the point of attachment
Umbonate topography colony with centre button-shaped elevation
Uniseriate in Aspergillus, a vesicle bearing a single layer of phialides
Velvety texture low aerial mycelium with smooth nap, as in velvet cloth
Verrucose topography colony furrowed or convoluted
Verticil group of conidiogenous cells radiating out from a single point like spokes in a wheel
Vesicle inflated end of a conidiophore or sporangiophore
Woolly texture colony with high aerial mycelium which appears slightly matted
Yeast-like colony soft, pasty, smooth colony; usually without filamentous growth
Zoophilic found primarily in animals, occasionally infect humans
Macroconidium larger of two types of conidia produced by the same organism; usually is multicelled
Created by: mlynnm727