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networking Chapter 4


address resource record a type of dns data record that maps the ip address of an internet connected device to its domain name
alias nickname for a nodes host name
anycast address IPv6 address
arp table a database of records that maps mac addresses to ip addresses
arp tcp/ip protocol that belongs in the network layer of the osi model
arp obtains the mac address of a host,or node and then maps the mac address to the hosts ip logical address
tcp/ip protocol suite referred to ip or tcp ip
tcp/ip advantage open in nature, flexible routable
tcp/ip advantage run on any platform
tcp/ip advantage costs nothing,code can be edited and modified by any programmer
tcp/ip advantage transmissions carry network layer addressing information
tcp/ip model application layer,transport layer,internet layer,network interface,or link, layer
application layer http,ftp,telnet,ntp,dhcp,ping
transport layer tcp,udp
internet layer ip,arp,icmp,igmp
network interface layer ethernet
transmission control protocol provides reliable data delivery services
transmission control protocol connection oriented
transmission control protocol uses sequencing and checksums
transmission control protocol provides flow control
transmission control protocol tcp segment format,the entity that becomes encapsulated by the ip packet in the network layer,becomes the ip packet
tcp provides flow control to ensure that a node is not flooded with data
sequencing assembled back into the right order
user datagram protocol connectionless protocol
udp no guarantee that the user will get the data
udp more efficient for carrying messages that fit within one data packet
three segments establish connection three way handshake syn synack ack
udp no error checking or sequencing
udp advantage great volume of data transferred quickly
internet protocol provides information about how and where data should be delivered,including data source and destination address
internetwork transverse more than one lan segment and more than one type of network thru a router
packets datagrams
ip packet acts as an envelope for data and contains info necessary for routers to transfer data between different lan segments
two versions of ip protocols ipv4 and ipv6
ipv4 unreliable,connectionless protocol
ip protocol network layer protocol
ip packet data envelope
data envelope address on envelop,where it is going and where it came from
ipv6 advantages provides billions of additional ip addresses
ipv6 advantages better security and prioritization provisions
ipv6 ip next generation
ipv6 released in 1998
fields in an ipv4 packet fifteen
ipv4 packet fields version,internet header length,differentiated services,total length
ipv4 packet fields identification,flags,fragmentation offset
ipv4 packet fields time to live,protocol,headerchecksum,source ip address
ipv4 packet fields destination ip address,options,padding,data
ipv6 packet fields version,traffic class,flow label
ipv6 packet fields payloader length,next header,hop limit
ipv6 packet fields source address,destination address
one major difference between ipv4 and ipv6 ipv6 packets accommadate the much longer ipv6 addresses
IPv4 protocols igmp,arp
IPv6 protocol icmp version6
internet group management protocol manages multicasting on networks
multicasting transmission method that allows one node to send data to a defined group of nodes
multicasting point to multipoint method
multicast transmission does not necessarily transmit to every node on a segment
time to live in ipv4 is defined as hops or miliseconds
one node needs to know the mac address of another node on the same network the first node issues a broadcast message asking, "whose mac address belongs to ip address", using arp
arp table arp cache
arp table a database saved on the hard drive that maps mac addresses to ip addresses
arp table entries static and dynamic
static arp table entries manually entered addresses
dynamic arp table entrry created when a client makes an arp request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the arp table
ICMPv6 detects and reports data transmission errors,discovers other nodes on a network,and manages multicasting
logical addresses manually or automatically assigned and must follow rules et by the protocol standards
internet protocol protocol responsible for logical addressing
an ip address contains two types of info network and host
class d addresses reserved for multicasting
class e addresses reserved for experimental use
bytes size
bits speed
node any device that connects up to a network
internet control message protocol network layer core protocol that reports success or failure of data delivery
broadcast address last address available in a network
ip address unique thirty two bit number
ip address thirty two bit number address divided into four octets,or sets of eight bits
network class determined from first octet
Class A 126 networks
Class B less than 16,000
Class C less than two million
Class A 1 - 126
Class B 128 - 191
Class C 192 - 223
network ID the portion of an IP address common to all nodes on the same network or subnet
ipv4 address four byes long
loopback address
loopback address ping your own machine
last address always broadcast address cant assign it
zero reserved as a placeholder
dotted decimal notation the shorthand conventionused to represent ipv4 address and make them easier for humans to read
loopback address assures that tcp ip suite of protocols in installed, is there an issue with my neywork card
dotted decimal notation decimal number between 0 and 255 represents each octet
dotted decimal address
subnetting a process of subdividing a single class of networks into multiple,smaller logical networks or segments
subnet mask thirty two bit number identifying a devices subnet
subnet mask informs network about a segment,network where device is attached
subnet mask assigned the same way as ip addresses,manually and automatically
subnets are composed of thirty two bits four octets and can be expressed in binary or decimal
ipv6 composed of 128 bits
ipv6 composed of eight 16-bit fields
ipv6 typically represented in hexadeciaml numbers
unicast address represents a single interface on a device
multicast address represents multiple interfaces on multiple devices
anycast address represents any one interface from a group of interfaces,any one of which can accept a transmission
link local unicast address FE80
site local unicast address FEC0
multicast address FFOx
ipv6 loopback address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0::1
anycast address useful for identifying all of the routers that belong to one ISP
multicast address useful for transmitting the same data to many different devices simultaneously
dhcp automated means of assigning a unique ip address to devices on a network
reasons for implementing dhcp reduce the time and planning spent on ip address management
reasons for implementing dhcp reduce the potential for errors in assigning ip addresses
reasons for implementing dhcp to enable end users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their tcp/ip configuration
reasons for implementing dhcp to make ip addressing transparent for mobile users
node every device connected to something on the network
static ip addresses manually assigned
change static ip address modify client workstation tcp/ip properties
dynamic ip address assigned automatically
dhcp leasing process assigns an ip address on a temporary basis for a specified length of time,borrow
dhcp scope range of addresses
dynamic host configuration protocol application layer protocol
dhcp works on first come first serve
lease time determined when client obtains ip address at logon
dhcp service configuration specified leased address range
terminating a dhcp lease expire based on a period established in server configuration
circumstances requiring lease termination dhcp server fails and replaced
dhcp services run on several server types installation and confihurations vary
link local address private addres
link local address capable of transmitting and receiving data only on a local network segment
link local address are not routable and do not allow nodes to communicate beyond their segments
private addresses allow host to communicate on an internal network,intranet
zero configuration collection of protocols that assigns link local addresses,performs dns functions,and discovers services
router connects two different networks
ipv4ll a protocol that manages automatic address assignment among locally connected nodes
link local same as apipa
socket a processes port number plus its host machine's ip address
the use of port numbers simplifies tcp/ip communications and ensures that data are transmitted to the correct application
well known ports 0 to 1023
registered ports 1024 to 49151
private ports 49152 to 65535
well known ports are assigned to processes that only the operating system or an administrator of the system can access
registered ports are accessible to network users and processes that do not have special administrative privileges
private ports are open for use without restriction
private ports dynamic ports
port numbers simplify tcp/ip communications;ensures data transmitted correctly
socket address
sockets form virtual connections between a process on one computer and the same process running on another computer
host technically every device on the internet
domain group of computers belonging to the same organization and has part of their ip addresses in common
full qualified domain name local host name plus its domain name
domain name www.google.com
com top level domain
google second level domain
www third level domain
maximum of 253 characters domain names
host file a text file that associates tcp/ip host names with ip addresses
label character string
label represents level in domain naimg hierarchy
ICANN established domain naming conventions
resolvers are any hosts on the internet that nned to look up domain name information
domain name system a heirarchial way of tracking domain names and their addresses,
dns does not rely on one file or even one server,but is distributed over several key computers
dns tcp/ip service that belongs to the application layer
dns service relies on many computers across he globe
to direct traffic efficiently the dns service is divided into three components
dns components resolvers, name servers, name spaces
name servers servers that contain databases of associated names and ip addresses and provides this information to resolvers onrequest
namespace refers to the database of internet ip addresses and their associated names
namespace abstract concept that describes how the name servers of the world share dns information
dns zones portions for which one organizaion is assigned authority to manager
zone file information about hosts in a dns zone
root server a dns server maintained by icann and iana that is an authority on how to contact the top level domains
root server icann oversees 13 root servers
resolver anything that can connect to the internet and look up information
dns cache a database stored on your computer that stores information about ip addresses and their associated host names
name servers provides info to resolvers on request
zone transfer copying the primary name server's zone file to the secondary's name server
most organizations rely on two name servers primary and secondary
dns - static reliable way of locating a host as long as the hosts ip address remains relatively constant over time
telnet port 23
telnet used to log on to remote hosts using the tcp/ip protocol suite
ftp port 20 and 21
ftp used to send and receive files via tcp/ip
ftp a set of simple commands that make up their user interfaces
tftp port 69
tftp enables file transfers between computers
dynamic dns service provider runs program on users computer
ddns service providers server launches routine to automatically update dns record
tftp connectionless protocol
tftp useful when you need to load data or programs on a computer that lacks a hard drive
trivial file transfer protocol diskless workstation
network time protocol port 123
ntp synchronize the clocks of computers on a network
ping packet internet groper
tcp connection oriented
telnet insecure
pinging send a signal back and forth
ping often employed simply to determine whether a host is up or down
ping uses icmp
ftp host running ftp server portion
difference between ftp and tftp tftp does not allow directory browsing
ping switches ?
ping switches a
ping switches n
ping switches r
? displays the help text for ping command
a when used with an ip address, resolves the address to a host name
n allows you to specify a number of echo requests to send
r when used with a number from one to nine displays the route taken during ping hops
time synchronization importance maintaining accuracy,consistency between multiple storage systems
ping provides verification
ping send echo request and echo reply messages
Created by: cgeaski