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TherEx Higgins 5

Chapter 5

Flexibility the ability to move a joint or series of joints through full, unrestricted, pain-free ROM. Determined by joint ROM and soft tissue extensibility
Stretching any therapeutic maneuver designed to increase soft tissue mobility. Facilitating elongation of tissue
Contracture adaptive muscular shortening
hypermobility increased joint ROM beyond what is generally considered to be typical for a joint or joints
Hypomobility restricted motion caused by adaptive shortening of soft tissues around a joint
over stretching stretching to elongate a tissue beyond limitation
Synergist muscles muscles that work together to produce a given movement
Agonist Muscle contracting muscle
Antagonist Muscle stretched muscle
Reciprocal Inhibition Contracting agonist, relaxing antagonist
Length-Tension relationship Muscle's ability to develop tension based on position of muscle at time of contraction
When is peak force of muscle contraction at mid range of motion
What causes a muscle to generate less force Limited muscle flexiblity
What is the effect of muscle Tightness effects joint mechanics, posture and injury. Loss of ROM
Factors affecting muscle function and length connective tissue contracture, abnormal bony structure, soft tissue approximation, scar tissue
Soft tissue approximation muscle mass and adipose limits ROM
Properties of connective tissue Elasticity, Extensibility, failure
Elasticity stretch and return to resting length
Extensibility Ability to take on new length when stretched
failure partial tearing/scaring
Stretch reflex stimulation of mechanoreceptors that inform the CNS about musculotendinous length and tension.
Golgi Tendon Organ Mechanoreceptor in tendon that respond to muscle lengthening and muscle tension. Cause a reflexive relaxation of involved muscle
Autogenic inhibition reflexive relaxation of muscle.
Reciprical inhibition increased firing of the GRO and a net decrease in overall muscle tension in the antagonist muscle during isometric contraction
Muscle spindle mechanoreceptor inside muscle that respond to changes in muscle length
Plasticity the ability of the soft tissue to assume a new length when a strech is applied
Failure(partial or complete rupture) when soft tissue fibers are stretched beyond their limits
cyclic loading the repeated application of stretching. low load long duration stretching is repeatedly applied to shortened tissues
Ballistic stretching high intenisty stretch that will likely result in firing the muscle spindles and stimulation of the monosynaptic stretch reflex.
monosynaptic stretch reflex muscle shorten to limit the effects of the stretching procedure
Active Warmup increasing soft tissue extensibility by increasing tissue temperatures, allowing for more relaxation and better elongation of shortened tissues.
Thermotherapy Superficial heating, including the application of moist hot packs, fluidotherapy, warm whirlpool baths, and paraffin. Deep therapy includes ultrasound and diathermy
Stretching window the amount of time the clinician has to apply a stretch after removal of the modality... Less than 3 minutes
Cryotherapy decreasing soft tissue extensibility and henderance of elongation of soft tissue extensibilty.
Ballistic Stretching technique in which the patient or clinician performs dynamic elongation of the muscle beyond the muscle's normal range of motion
Dynamic stretching actively moving a joint or joints quickly through their normal range of motion so as to slightly elongate muscles and significantly increase blood flow to tissues.
Static stretching passive stretching which can be performed by the clinician, a partner, or the patient. Slow passive movement beyond the involved tissue's normal ROM
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching (PNF) an approach that combines functionally based patterns of diagonal movement with neuromuscular facilitate techniques to evoke motor responses aimed at improving muscular control and function in preparation for activity.
Hold-Relax Technique (PNF) involves lengthening a tight muscle and asking the patient to isometrically contract this muscle for several seconds, as the patient relaxes, the clinician lengthens the involved muscle further to new end ROM
Hold-relax with agonist contraction same procedures as hold-relax technique; however, after the tight muscle is contracted isometrically against the clinician's resistance, the patient now concentrically contracts the muscle opposite the tight muscle to actively move the joint ROM to SS.
Contract-relax passively lengthens the tight muscle to its end range. patient concentric contraction of tight muscle through full range. mild resistance applied during contracture. restretch tight muscle
Neural tension techniques stretching aimed at decreasing adverse mechanical tension on nerves. Slow controlled elongation of the nerve to allow for better neural glide.
Created by: WalkerChance