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TherEx Higgins 2

Chapter 2

Types of Tissue Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Acute injury single forceful event
repetitive injury/chronic injury overtime, repetitive, low force events
cumulative load theory tissues breakdown with repeated or prolonged use
multivariate interaction theory interactions b/w genetic, morphological, psychological, and biomechanical factors
Abrasions superficial layer
incisions wounds with smooth even edge
lacerations irregular tears of the skin
avulsion seperation of skin
punctures deep object penetration
Contusions Bruises. 1st degree: superficial 2nd degree: pain and hemmoraging,increased are and depth and mild to moderate functional limitations 3rd degree: severe
Strains Musculotendinous structure: 1: microdamage 2: partial tear 3: complete disruption
Sprains ligamentous injuries: 1: microdamage 2: partial tear 3: complete disruption or rupture of tissue
Fractures Simple or Compound (clean or protruding breaks)
Greenstick children
Transverse Fracture transverse plane
Oblique fracture angled fracture
Spiral Fracture fracture has broken and shifted
comminuted Fracture multiple fragments
Avulsion Fracture Bone being pulled away by tendon
Impacted Fracture Bone is impacted
Depressed fracture fracture of flat bones (Skull)
Epiphysial fracture Growth plate fracture.
Neuropraxia transient and reversible loss of nerve function from trauma
axonotmesis partial disruption of a nerve. 2 to 52 weeks
Neurotmesis complete severance of a nerve
Blisters repeated shearing or friction
tendonopathies repetitive overload of connective tissue
tendinosis degeneration of the tendon
tenosynovitis inflamation of tendon sheeth
Neuralglia or neuroma chronic irritation of nerve (discomfort) (nerve thickening
Soft Tissue Healing: Phase 1: Inflammatory Response Loss of function, lasts up to 7 days: immune response-proteins to ECM, Mast Cells, Macrophages.
Fibronectin and fibrin granulated tissue (Scar tissue)
Rehab for Phase 1: inflammatory response PRICE
PRICE Protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation
Phase 2: Repair and regeneration (Proliferation) Bone, muscle, peripheral nerve, blood vessels, etc, regenerate. Day 4-10 or Day 7-21.
Phase 2: ligaments and tendons fibrin clots, capilary proliferation, fibronectins produce type III collagen
Phase 2: Treatment Early controlled mobilization: elongation and causing collogen fibers to become parallel
Phase 3: Remodeling/Maturation up to 24 months: type I and III collagen produced. Gradual progression of increased load
Fracture Managmenet Varies by fixation, involved bone, and mechanical loads of surrounding soft tissue
Open reduction internal fixation surgical intervention. rehab can occur within 1st week after surger
Non-surgical fixation ROM exercises limited for 1st-3rd week. 6-8 weeks can begin to strengthen
Delayed and nonunion fractures affected by: nutrition, diabetes, smoking, drugs, occlusion
Wallerian degeneration axons distal to injury produce pro-inflammatory proteins that promote inflammatory response
Created by: WalkerChance