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Conditions-CH.10

QuestionAnswer
Alveoli small sacs in the lungs which perform the gas exchange. Oxygen is moved into the blood stream from the alveoli to be carried to cells throughout the body.
Angioplasty a procedure where a small mesh tube is inserted into the coronary artery to widen the opening, thus increasing the blood flow.
Atherosclerosis a widespread form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of plaques(atheromas) containing cholesterol and other lipid material are form within the inner layer (intima) of large and medium size arteries.
Cardiopulmonary (system) includes the lungs, heart, & their connections
Carotid endarterectomy excision of thickened atheromatous areas of the inner most layer of an artery (intima) to improve circulation.
Chronic bronchitis inflammation of the bronchiole tubes resulting in a thickening of the walls, making it difficult to breathe.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a term that includes chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and bronchiectasis. The condition is irreversible and characterized by progressive limitation in the flow of air in and out of the lungs.
Cilia hair like structures in the lungs airways that help to move the mucus out and clean the airways.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) chronic, non-curable condition where the heart does not beat strongly enough to maintain adequate blood flow to all systems in the body, causing organs to be O2 deprived & the body to retain fluid
Coronary artery bypass grafting a process in which arteries or veins from other parts (often the legs) are “harvest” and then surgically attached to bypass the blocked arteries near the heart.
Coronary artery disease tied very closely to atherosclerosis where plaque, made of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances, sticks to the inner lining of arteries that are taking oxygen rich blood to the body.
Diastolic the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest.
Dyspnea difficult, labored, or painful breathing.
Ecchymosis skin discoloration caused by escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels.
Emphysema the destruction of the walls of the bronchioles and alveoli, which results in abnormal and enlarged air spaces.
Epiglottis a thin flap of tissue in the esophagus that protects the lungs from foreign objects by covering the trachea during swallowing.
Hypertension (HTN) persistent blood pressure measurements above the normal systolic.
Metabolic equivalent a MET is the amount of energy that an activity requires, with more sedentary task such as watching TV or doing computer work using 1.5 to 2 METS ranging up to some competitive sports requiring 11 or more METS.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by lack of blood supply to the heart muscle and tissue death occurs.
Oxygen transport the delivery of fully oxygenated blood to peripheral tissues, the cellular uptake of oxygen, the utilization of oxygen from the blood, and the return of partially desaturated blood to the lungs.
Pneumonia an inflammation of lung tissue, where the alveoli in the affected areas fill with fluid. The condition is caused by bacteria, viruses, aspiration, or immobility.
Pulse oximetry measures the oxygen concentration in arterial blood. The normal range is 95% to 100%. Measurements are taken to prevent hypoxia and to evaluate treatment.
Rales cracking sounds or rumbling sound caused by increased mucus which the physician diagnoses by the way of listening to the chest during breathing is.
Sphygmomanometer instrument used to measure blood pressure
Spirometry main test of lung function for those with COPD; measures how much air is forcefully exhaled & how quickly
Systolic amount of force used to pump blood out of the heart into the arterial circulation.
Tachycardia abnormal rapid heart rates which may indicate inefficient hear function, reducing circulation integrity and diminishing oxygenation of other body structures.
Tuberculosis (TB) a serious and highly contagious, airborne infection usually affecting the lungs. It is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Created by: sheaton