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Physio ch 8

states of consciousness are measured by..and include... brain activity ( EEG)...alert, drowsy and asleep
range of states of consciousness fully alert to coma
conscious experiences ar...and can occur while you are..and inclued things you are aware of...awake or asleep...thoughts/ideas and feelings or perceptions
EEGs measure... through activity of the brain..graded potentials
graded potengials are postsynaptic potentials
graded potentials occur in the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex
EEG abnormal patterns may be indicatorys of disease or damage (epilepsy amplitude spikes)
EEG patterns record amplitude (microvolts) and freqency (Hz)
high amp:...low amp:... many neurons active and synchronous firing..few neurons active and/or asynchronous firing
frequency is from...and the trend is... 1-40+ Hz...increase frequency = increase state of alertness
when you are activate either alpha or beta rhythms
alpha rhythms occur when..and the neurons are firing...and the freq range is... you are relaxed with your eyes closed...synchronally..8-13 Hz
if the amp is higher (as in alpha rhythm( then the frequency is lower
beta rhythm means you are...and the EEG detects...and occurs when you.. more your eyes, pay attention to external stimuli
beta rhythm neurons are...and the frequency range is.. desynchronized...> 13 Hz
when you are asleep you are either in NREM or REM
NREm has how many stages 4
stage 1 occurs during...and what waves are occurring... drowsiness and light sleep...alpha waves are sporadic with interruptions of slow theta waves
stage 1 theta waves have what frequency...and are...but... 4-8 Hz...even slower than alpha..higher amp
stage 2 is decreased...and theta waves are interrupted by... sensitivity to stimuli...sleep spindles and k complexes
stage 3 is...and has what rhythms? deep sleep..theta and delta ( < 4 Hz - even higher amp)
stage 4 is also...and this is when children release...and is predominantly... deep sleep (recovery time)...growth rhythms
REM is your paradoxical sleep or dream sleep
the EEG for REM is similar to beta rhythm
during REM there is an overall...with the exception of... decreased muscle tone and activity...eye muscles and respiratory muscles
sleep anea lacks the stimulation of the respiratory muscles
REM has increased...and ofte time...are exhibited respiration, heart rate and blood pressure...muscle twitches in face and limbs
REM sleep allows you to problem solve (symp division)
characteristic patterns of sleep stage 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1 > REM
how many times do you cycle per night 4-6 times
deep nrem sleep lasts approx 90 minutes
there is a shift more nrem sleep...more rem sleep as night progresses
nrem stages 3&4 are essential for rest and release of growth hormones
rem state is when you dream, stimulate areas of the brain used for learning, thinking and organizing information
factors affecting sleep cycles age, biological clock v real world clock, body temp, caffeine, stress levels(cortisol)
neural control: awake v. asleep RAS and hypothalamus
RAS arises in the...and wake periods sleep periods... brainstem..biogenic amines(aminergic neurons, NE and serotonin) active...cholinergic neurons active
biogenic amines mean there are lower levels of ACh to keep you awake
cholinergic neurons increase ACh
RAS promotes...and hypothalamus promotes... REM...NREM sleep
hypothalamus specifically activates the preoptic area and pineal gland
the preoptic area promotes...and ihibits.. NREM sleep..wakefulness(GABA v. histamine neurotransmitters)
if you take away histamine you have less brain activity so you sleep
pineal gland in the dark it.. increases melatonin release to induce lower body temp
caffeine and sleep: adenosine can be either atp, adp, amp or just adenosine
adenosine is a..that binds to... ligand...RAS receptors
adenosine is a..of..and accumulates during... byproduct..neural activity...the day
adenosine receptors are on the... cells of the RAS
increasing adenosine reception means increased sleepiness and decreased brain activity
caffeine is an adenosine mimic (chemical similarity)
caffeine binds to...but doesnot... adenosine receptor..activate the cell
caffeine competes with adenosine for the receptor binding sites
increasing caffeine bound means... decreased adenosine bound and increased brain activity
increasing activity activates the..and thus... pituitary...increases the release of epinephrine from adrenal gland
increasing the release of...makes you... dopamine...feel better
coma occurs when there is dramatically decreased brain function
coma lacks...or... normal sleep-wake cycles...ability to be aroused (persistent vegetative state)
coma can either .. reversible or irreversible
reversible coma is either... medically ihnduced coma for better healing or no severe tissue damage
irreversible coma is when there is... damage/death of tissue (CNS neuron death is permanent)
brain death contains 3 usual criterion... nature of death, level of damage and supplemental
nature of damage is reversible or irreversible (evidence of tissue death)
level of damage means there is only spinal cord activity (no movement outside of reflexes)
supplemental criterion usually go along with...and include... other two criteria...flat EEG, eye reflex responses, cerebral circulation (need oxygen for the brain)
selective attention is similar to... somatic senses
selective attention includes the...and... orienting response...habituation
orienting response is when a... novel stimulus draws attention
when a novel stimulus draws attention you... disengage from current focus, orient towards the stimulus, perceive the stimulus
what does the brainstem do in the orienting response orient towards the stimulus
what does the cortex do in the orienting response perceive the stimulus
habituation occurs when you...and there is a... ignore irrelevant stimulus...decreased response to repetitive, irrelevant stimulus
habituation is analogous to adaptation
motivation is either primary or secondary
primary motivation is behavior to promote homeostasis (hungry so you eat)
secondary motivated behavior is behavior to reflect preferences or involves choice (how you choose to effect the primary motivated behavior)
reward and punishment involves positive and negative reinforcement
reward and punishment are controlled by the...which involves the.. RAS...mesolimbic dopamine pathway
positive reinforcement...while negative... keeps something there...takes it away
the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is...and goes from...with... reverberating...midbrain to limbic system...dopamine as the neurotransmitter
in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway amphetamines and caffeine >...which would be positive or negative? increase release of dopamine...positive
in the mesolimbic dop. pathway, cocain >....+/-? decrease uptake of dopamine...positive
in themesolimbic dopamine pathway, antipsychotic drugs >...pos/neg? block dopamine receptors...negative
emotion is the perception of the environment(light, temp, appearance, moods, etc0 and predisposition towards it
if the environment is happy and friendly you activate...or if it is threatening and fearful you activate the... para...symp
emotional behavior is an...includig.. actual response...heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation, sweating, blushing
what controls emotional behavior hypo, limbic system and cerebral cortex integration
hypothalamus regulates emotional behavior through...and the cerebral cortex asks... pituitary gland...what do you want to do
inner emotions are you...and are controlled primarily in the...with... feelings...limbic system...additional integrating areas including the cerebral cortex
schizophrenia is disrupted basic cognitive processes
schizophrenia has variable symptoms like hallucinations, delusions, catatonia(paralysis)
schizophrenia is caused by a possible link to excess dopamine or abnormal brain development
excess dopamine would be...caused by... drug induced...amphetamines and cocain
abnormal brain development diagnosis occurs late in teen years especially in females
mood disorders occur because of persistent inner emotions (perceived state of being)
mood disorders include depression and bipolar disorders
depression is depressed activity in the limbic system and prefrontal cortex (emotional states)
depression can be either... primary (endogenous) or secondary (exogenous or reactive)
primary depression is from within the body such as a chemical imbalance or cell disfunction
secondary depression is the result of something else happening (spouse death/major surgery)
bipolar disorders include manic depression and mood swings (extreme euphoria to depression)
treatment for mood disorders includes antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy and phototherapy
antidepressants include tricyclic antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors, bipolar treatment
tricyclic antidepressant drugs... decrease serotonin and NE reuptake
monoamine oxidase inhibitors decrease NE and serotonin breakdown
serotonin-specific reuptake inhibtors decrease serotonin reuptake
bipolar treatment includes lithium for regulating mood swings and anti-convulsants
electroconvulsive therapy is shock therapy
phototherapy is...and treats... sunny days vs rainy days...seasonal affective depressive disorder (not enough/right kind of light)
psychoactive substances often alter...which is... mesolimbic pathway...the reward pathway (positive reinforcement)
substance dependence = ... and often causes addiction..psychological dependence and physical dependence
physical dependence leads to withdrawals or physiological symptoms
tolerance means you have to increase the dose to see equal affects
cross-tolerance can..and means you... occur with many types of drugs...develop tolerance for one substance which makes you develop tolerance for another similar substance
learning involves experiencing new material and storing it
memory includes the ability to... store and retrieve learned material
neural encoding is...and means you... making neural pathway with reinforcement...commit things to memory -memory formation
short v long term memeory minutes v years
how do you make a long term mem consolidation
declarative v procedural memory putitng into words v doing(motor memory)
language skills are controlled mainly in the left brain
language can be both spoken and written
left brain damage occuring early in childhood means...and in adulthood.. the right side can take over lang skills...language deficits occur(pathways have already been formed by the end of puberty)
damage to wernicke's area is in the..and means... back of the brain...comprehension of words is disrupted, poor integration of sensory info and speech is fluent but gibberish
wernicke's area damage causes speech gibberish is also called comprehension aphasia
broca's area is in the..and damage here causes front of brian...speaking of words is disrupted, poor integration for motor action, words understood but speech is inarticulate, poor syntax and they leave words out
broca's area results in expressive aphasia
right brain-left brain different approach to integration (artistic v analytical)
males v females have different physical characteristics for learning, patterns of development, patterns of integration and brain use
language in females occurs in..and for males itsin.. both sides of brain...left
navigation for males...and females... is landmarks
emotion for females there is an actual part of the brain for this but not in males
Created by: handrzej



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