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Physio Ch. 7 part 2

hearing is a...which detects special sense...frequency or pitch
sound waves monitor frequency or pitch is measured in...and if you increase frequency... # of cycles per second (Hz)...increase pitch
audible sound range 20-20,000 HZ
sound waves also monitor...which is the... loudness...amplitude of waves (how much deflection)
what sound range do you tend to lose first in old age upper end
detection of sound waves uses what kind of receptors? and how do they detect the sound mechanoreceptors...deformation of steriocilia
the bending of steriocilia on top of...does what hair cells..physicall opens mechanically gated channels
vibration transmition goes from outer ear, middle ear to inner ear
the outer ear contains the...and the major part of it is the... pinna(auricle and external auditory canal..tympanic membrane
the middle ear contains what malleus, incus and stapes and oval window
inner ear contains the...which has what inside it cochlea...scala vestibuli, cochlear duct (basilar membrane) and scala tympani
the...inside the choclia... fluid...vibrates which then vibrates the basilar membrane
the inner ear also has the..which is also called the...and allows for... round window...2nd tympanic membrane...pressure relief
organ of corti is the... true sensory area
organ of corti detects..which are.. vibration of basilar membrane...cyclic vibrations
organ of corti detects vibration by the movement of hair cells
deformation of steriocilia (...) alternates flex...compression and release with sound waves
if the stereocilia bends toward kinocilium then...are opened and the hair cells.. mechanically gated cation channels...depolarize
how does the bending of the steriocilia toward the kinocilium open the cation channels? the steriocilia and kinocilium are connected by a ropelike structure, so the distance between the steriocilia and kinocilia increases when the sterioclia bends toward the kinocilia and the rope physically pulls open the channels
when the steriocilia bend toward the kinocilia, after the depolarization of the hair cell what three things happen open voltage gated ca channels, release glutamate (excitatory) and stimulate afferent neurons (graded and AP)
the depolarization of hair cells is important because endolymph has different ion concentrations and it is k that goes into the cell, not na
if the steriocilia bends away from the kino then the mechanically gated cation channels close, the hair cell is repolarized and no neurotransmitter is released
neural pathway of audition cochlear branch(vestibulocochlear nerve VIII), thalamus, auditory cortex
the auditory cortex the neurons detecting different... labeled lines...pitches are arranged in specific ways within the auditory cortex
high pitch is detected..and low pitch is detected at.. at base of cochlea..apex/tip of cochlea
auditory cortex subconsciously montiros interaural time (left v right ear)
interaural time: timing of...allows... sound reception ...localization
conduction damage is in the...through... cochlea...air conduction(through external auditory canal or ossicles) or bone conduction
conduction damage is damage specificallly to the...and can cause tympanic membrane...otosclerosis(sclerosis of the ossicles) and otitis media (inflammation of fluid in middle ear)
conduction damage is treated by hearing aids
sensorineural damage must be at..and is caused by receptors (hair cells)...loud or prolonged noises
sensorineural pathway affects CNS or PNS PNS
sensorineural damage is done to the...and is treated by... cochlear portion of vestibulocochlear nerve...cochlear implants
central hearing loss is inthe CNS or PNS? CNS
central hearing loss affects the auditory tracts and auditory cortex
vestibular apparatus includes the semicircular canals and vestibule
semicircular canals monitor rotation and angular acceleration and deceleration
semicircular canals respond in.. changes in head rotation...nodding yes or no
vestibule contains the...for... utricle and saccule...linear acceleration (up and down)
vestibule generally monitors position relative to gravity
transmission of sound occurs in the...where the...initially stays...which causes... semicircular canals...endolymp in canal...stationary ...pressure on cupula
transmission: semicircular cananls: cupula in...of...moves... ampula...semicircular body moves
semicircular canals assist with...through the... balance...deformation of steriocilia
stereocilia movement is relative to...and at rest they are... endolymph..not bent (regular release of neurotransmitter)
deformation of stereocilia: stimulation happends when...which involves what 5 steps stereo bends toward mechanically gated cation channels, depolarize hair cell, open voltage gated ca channels, release glutamate, stimulate afferent neurons
inhibition of stereocilia occurs when..and involves 3 things stereocilia bend away from kno...close mechanically gated cation channels, hyperpolarize the hair cell and no neurotransmitter is released
transmission can also cocur in the...which responds to... vestibule...gravity and linear acceleration
inside the vestibule is...which gelatinous material and otoliths...move to detect gravity and linear acceleration
vestibule detects balance through the deformation of stereocilia and movement of otoliths
the stimulation and inhibition of vestibule is the same as the semicircular canals
neural pathways of balance vestibular branch of vestibulocochlear nerve, thalamus, cerebral cortex
the cerebral cortex sends...and controls... muscle info out...extraocular eye muscles (mainly medial and lateral)
cerebral cortex helps you...and involves the awareness of... upright position and posture...body position, acceleration and deceleration
problems in the neural pathway of balance include vetigo, motion sickness and miniere's disease
vertigo is an..which results in..because... inner ear infection...mismatched information...pressure on stereocilia causes random bending in all directions
motion sickness occurs bec of unfamiliar linear and rotational patterns
miniere's disease is excess endolymph
miniere's disease has increased...and causes... increased pressure in cochlea and vestibular apparatus...dizziness and ringing in the ears
gustation is deteced by taste buds in lingual papillae
chemical receptors for gustation include what modalities sweet (sgar and sweetners), sour (acidity H+), salty (na+), bitter (alkaloids) umami(glutamate/ msg)
umami includes mushrooms, tomatoes, meat, seaweed etc
other factors that contribute to gustation are pain (hot-capsaicin), texture and temp
neural pathway for taste facial nerve (ant. 2/3 of tongue), glossopharyngeal (post 1/3), vagus (pharyngeal taste), thalamus, taste cortex
facial nerve sensory and motor functions taste...facial expression
trigeminal nerve sensory function facial sensation
what else affects taste smell, mental impression, taste adversion, gender, age
olfaction is detected by...and uses... olfactory epithelium...chemical receptors
how many chemical receptors are there for olfaction? 1000+ types
chemical receptors for olfaction if you combine receptor activation you get... specific to chemical...different smells
neural pathway of smell olfactory nerve, olfactory tract, olfcatory cortex or limbic system/thalamus and RAS
olfactory nerve: receptor n eurons in..through...then to the... and lastly to the... olfactory epithelium...cribriform plate of ethmoid bone...olfactory bulb in cranium...olfactory tract
the olfactory tract is part of the cerebellum
two destinations of olfaction olfactory cortex and limbic system/thalamus/RAS
olfactory cortex does identification and conscious interpretation of smell
limib system/thalamus/RAS is responsible for...via.. awareness and emotional responses to food ...subcortical route
limbic system/thalamus/RAS has as a strong integration w/ emotions/memories, food-getting behaviors, sexual behaviors, sympathetic system activation(dange)
anything else affect oflaction or your perception of smells age, gender, smoking, colds and allergies, level of hunger, anosmia
synesthesia is when somatic and special senses are mixed up instead of being perceived separately
synesthesia happens because of... incorrect perception of a sense, cross wiring in the brain and cross activation
incorrect perception of a sense examples touch interpreted as taste, sound interpreted as color, number interpreted as color
cross wiring in the brain happens because of...which affects the... TPO (junction of temporal, parietal and occipital lobes)...higher area of integration and interpretation
cross activationis an imbalance of chemicals for inhibition of adjacent or inappropriate pathways
Created by: handrzej



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