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networking Chapt. 3


media physical or atmospheric paths that signals follow
transmit issue signals along a network medium such as a cable
transmission process of transmitting or the progress of signals after they have transmitted
signaling methods analog digital
volts electrical current pressure
strength of a signal is directly proportional to its voltage
transceiver transmits and receives signals
voltage strength of a signal
signals can be current, light pulses, electromagnetic waves
analog signal properties amplitude frequency wavelength phase
amplitude height of the wave
amplitude measure of a waves strength at any given time
frequency number of times the amplitude cycles over fixed time
wavelength distance between one peak and the next
phase progress of wave over time in a relationship compared to a fixed point
hertz one full wave per second
frequency expressed in cycles per second
hertz cycles per second
wavelength distance between corresponding points on a wave cycle
analog signal benefit more variable than digital signals so they can convey greater subtleties with less energy
analog signal drawback voltage is varied and imprecise
noise any type of interference that may degrade a signal
analog transmission is more susceptible to transmission flaws
digital signals composed of pulses of precise,positive voltages and zero voltages
one pulse of positive voltages
in a data signal multiple bytes are combined to form a message
eight bits byte
digital transmission involves sending and receiving only a pattern of ones and zeros
overhead describes the nondata information that must accompany data for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted by a network
examples of overhead data link layer header and trailer
examples of overhead network layer addressing information
examples of overhead transport layer flow control information
standards dictate type of transmitter,communications channel,and receiver should be used
modem modulator demodulator
data modulation used to modify analog signals to make them suitable for carrying data over a communication path
modulation simple wave
modulation combined with another analog signal to produce a unique signal that gets transmitted from one node to another
simple wave carrier wave
carrier wave purpose is a messenger, help convey information
data wave information
frequency modulation radio data must travel along a particular frequency
modulation used to make a signal conform to a specific pathway
am a modulation technique in which the amplitude of the carrier signal is modified by the application of a data signal
fm a method of data modulation in which the frequency of the carrier signal is modified by the application of a data signal
data transmission direction in which the signals travel over the media
simplex signals travel in only one direction
simplex unidirectional communication
digital drawback many pulses required to transmit same information
digital benefit more reliable less noise interference
overhead required for proper signal routing and interpretation
half duplex signals travel in both directions but only one direction at a time
half duplex walkie talkie
modem accomplishes translation
data modulation make data suitable for carrying over communication path
data modulation data relies on digital transmission
carrier wave combined with another analog signal
carrier wave produces a unique signal
carrier wave purpose is to convey information
information wave data wave
data wave added to a carrier wave
information wave modifies one carrier wave property
full duplex bidirectional transmission
full duplex transmission telephone call
full duplex transmission ethernet networks because they use multiple channels on the same medium
makes use of modulation digital subscriber line
channel distinct communication path between nodes
channels are seperated physically and logically
full duplex capability increases the speed in which data travels over the network
multiplexing a form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium
full duplex signals travel in both directions simultaneously
subchannels the mediums channel is logically seperated into multiple smaller channels in order to carry multiple signals
multiplexer a device that can combine many signals on a channel
channel a lane on a highway.distinct way to communicate
multiplexer required at the transmitting end of a channel
demultiplexer at the receiving end
physical seperation one wire for transmission and one for reception
demultiplexer seperates the combined signals and regenerates them in their original form
networks rely on multiplexing to increase the amount of data that can be transmitted in any given time or span over a given bandwidth
time division multiplexing divides a channel into multiple intervals of time
tdm time slots
subchannels logical multiple smaller channels
multiplexing travel simultaneously over one medium
mux combines many signals
demux seperates combined signals
tdm assigns a seperate time slot to every node on the network,and,in that time slot,carries data from that node
time slots reserved for their designated nodes regardless of whetehr or not the node has data to transmit
tdm inefficient if the nodes on the network rarely send data
statistical multiplexing the transmitter assignes slots to nodes according to priority and need
frequency division multiplexing assigns a unique frequency band to each communications subchannel
wavelength division multiplexing technology used with fiber optic cable which enables one fiber optic connection to carry multiple light signals simultaneously
dense wavelength division multiplexing a multiplexing technique used over singlw mode or multimode fiber optic cable in which each signal is assigned a different wavelength for its carrier wave
wavelength division multiplexing a multiplexing technique in which each single on a fiber optic channel is assigned a different wavelength, which equates to its own subchannel
analog wave
digital block
fdm cell phones dsl
point to point transmission one transmitter and one receiver
point to multipoint transmission one transmitter and multiple receivers
broadcast transmission one transmitter and multiple undefined receivers
nonbroadcast one transmitter and multiple defined recipients
broadcast transmission simple and quick; used on wired and wireless networks
important characteristics of data transmission type of signaling and the direction in which it travels
important characteristics of data transmission number of senders and receivers;the relationship between them
broadcast transmission everyone can get the transmission whether or not they want it
data communication may involve a single transmitter with one or more receivers
data communication may involve multiple transmitters with one or more transceivers
throughput capacity ot bandwith
throughput amount of data transmitted during given time
throughput expressed as quantity of bits transmitted per second
bandwidth difference between highest and lowest frequencies medium can transmit
bandwidth range of frequencies
bandwidth measured in hertz
bandwidth the width of your frequency band
baseband systems can transmit only one signal ,or one channel,at a time
baseband transmission form in which digital signals are sent thru direct current pulses applied to the wire
baseband supports half duplex and full duplex
broadband form of transmission in which signals are modulated as radio frequency analog waves that use different frequency waves
baseband does not encode information as digital pulses
broadband more expensive because of extra hardware
broadband span longer didistances than baseband
emi common source of noise
emi waves that emanate from electrical devices or cables carrying electricity
type of emi radio frequency interference
cross talk a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable
alien cross talk cross talk occurs between two cables
next near end cross talk
attenuation loss of a signals strength as it travels away from the source
repeater a device that regenerates a digital signal
regeneration process of retransmitting a digital signal,repeats the pure signal,with no noise
latency the delay between the transmission of a signal and its receipt
affects latency length of the cable and intervening connectivity device
round trip time length of time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver,then back from receiver to sender
to constrain the latency and avoid its associated errors each type of cabling is rated for a maximum number of connected network segments
to constrain the latency and avoid its associated errors each transmission method is assigned a maximum segment length
throughput is limited by the signaling and multiplexing techniques used in a given transmission method`
baseband transmission ethernet
factors that affect the final cost in choosing to use a certain type of media cost of installation
factors that affect the final cost in choosing to use a certain type of media cost of new system versus the old one
factors that affect the final cost in choosing to use a certain type of media maintenance and support
factors that affect the final cost in choosing to use a certain type of media cost of a lower transmission rate affecting productivity
factors that affect the final cost in choosing to use a certain type of media downtime
near end cross talk occurs near source
type of media least affected by noise fiber optic cable
conduit pipeline to contain and further protect cabling
the maximum segment length depends on attenuation, latency, maximum network length
populated segment part of a network that coontains end nodes
unpopulated segment link segment
link segment part of the network that does not contain end nodes but connects two networking devices such as routers
maximum distance a signal can travel and still be interpreted is equal to a segments length
factors that determine the size and scalabiility of networking media maximum nodes per segment
factors that determine the size and scalabiility of networking media maximum segment length
factors that determine the size and scalabiility of networking media maximum network length
amplifiers and repeaters found in the physical layer of the osi model
repeater device regenerates digital signals
amplifier boosts analog signals
connectors pieces of hardware that connects the wire to the network device
media converter hardware that enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals
physical media characteristics throughput
physical media characteristics cost
physical media characteristics noise and immunity
physical media characteristics connectors and media converters
causes of throughput limitation laws of physics
causes of throughput limitation noise
causes of throughput limitation signaling and multiplexing techniques
causes of throughput limitation devices connected to transmission medium
maximum nodes per segment dependency attenuation and latency
sheath jacket
attenuation signal decaying over time
latency time back and forth
sheath protects the cable from physical damage
because of its shielding most coaxial cable has a high resistance to noise
rg radio guide
significane difference between cable types lie in the materials used for their shielding and conducting cores
impedeance resistance that contributes to controlling the signal
impedance expressed in ohms
transmission characteristics impedance attenuation throughput
awg american wire gauge
coaxial cable is used to guide radio frequencies in broadband transmission
awg size size of the conducting core in a coaxial cable
coaxial cable is a central metal core surrounded by insulator,braided metal sheilding,outer cover
rg 6 deliver broadband cable internet service and cable tv
rg 6 impedeance of 75 ohms and contains 18 awg conducting core
coaxial cable advantage carries signals farther before amplifier is required
coaxial cable disadvantage over twisted pair more expensive
rg 8 provided the medium for the first ethernet network
rg 8 impedeance of 50 ohms and contains 10 awg conducting core
rg 58 impedeance of 50 ohms and contains 24 awg conducting core
rg 59 impedeance of 75 ohms and contains a 20 or 24 awg conducting core
rg 58 popular medium for ethernet lans
rg 59 used for relatively short connections
the larger the awg size the smaller the diameter of a piece of wire
types of connectors f type and bnc
twisted pair cable inexpensive, flexible,easy to install,scommadates everal topologies,spans msignificant distance before requitring repeater
twisted pair cable accomodates several different topologies
more wire twists per foot more resistance to cross talk,higher quality,more expensive
hundreds of different designs twisted pait cable
tia/eia 568 wiring standard specification
twisted pair categories shielded and unshielded
twisted pair categories Cat 3,5,5e,6,6a,7
shielded twisted pair individually shielded,each pair has a shield and then shielded as a whole
unshielded twisted pair used most often
stp and utp use registered jack 45
telephone connections use registered jack 11
maximum segment length for stp and utp 100 meters and 328 feet
patch cable relatively short cable and had connectors at both ends
termination standards tia/eia 568 a or b
tia 568 a or tia 568 b defines a patch or a crossover cable
fiber optic cable one or more glass or plastic fibers at its center core
data transmission pulsing light sent from laser or light emittting diode thru central fibers
cladding layer of glass or plastic surrounding core
fiber optic cable benefits high throughput, high resistance to noise,
fiber optic cable benefits excellent security,able to carry signals for a longer distance
fiber optic drawbacks more expensive and requires special equipment to splice and connect
ferrule short tube within a connector that encircles the fiber and keeps it properly aligned
optical loss degradation of the light signal after it travels a certain distance away from its source
single mode fiber consists of a narrow core of eight to ten microns in diameter
single mode fiber laser generated light travels over one path
single mode fiber light does not disperse as signal travels
single mode fiber can carry signals many miles
multimode fiber contains a core with a larger diameter than single mode fiber,usually fifty to 62.5 microns
multimode fiber many pulses of light generated by a laser or led traveling at different angles
multimode fiber greater attenuation than single mode fiber
multimode fiber not suited to distances longer then a few miles,it is less expensive
fiber optic converter required to connect multimode fiber networks to single mode fiber networks
serial refers to a style of data transmission in which the pulses that represent bits follow one another along a single transmission line
serial issued sequentially not simultaneously
physical layer standard specifies signal voltage,signal timing,plus the characteristics of compatible interfaces
rs 232 serial data transmission method
rs 232 connectors db9,db 25,rj 45
straight thru cable connect two dissimiliar devices
crossover cable connect two similiar devices
cable plant hardware that make sup the enterprise cabling system
tia/eia joint 568 commercial building wiring standard structured cabling
entranc facilities designates where the telecommunications service provider accepts responsibility for the external connection
demarc their network stops and ours starts
main distribution frame first point of interconnection between an organizations LAN or WAN and a service providers facility
mdf computer room or equipment room
cross connect facilities the point where circuits interconnect with other circuits
punch down block panel of data recepors into which twisted pair wire is inserted,punched down,to complete a circuit
intermediate distribution frame junction point between the mdf and concentration of fewer connections
backbone wiring the cables or wireless links that provide interconnection between entrance facilities and mdfs,mdf,idfs and telecommunications closet
telecommunications closet contains connectivity for groups of connections in the area
horizontal wiring wiring that connects workstations to the closest telecommunications closet
three possible cabling types for horizontal wiring stp,utp or fiber optic cables
maximum allowable distance for horizontal wiring 100 meters
work area an area that encompasses all patch cables and horizontal wiring necesary to connect workstations,printers and other network devices from their nics to the telecommunications closet
bend radius the radius of the maximum arc into which you can loop a cable before you will impair data transmission
plenum the area above the ceiling tile or below the subflooring
two methods for transmitting data analog and digital
tia/eia specifications for backbone cabling utp single mode multi mode fiber
many network problems can be traced to poor cable installation
multiplexing allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium
analog signal wave
digital pulse,on off
zip cord cable short fiber optic cable in which two strands are arranged side by side in conjoined jackets,enabling full duplex communication
console the serial interface on the back of the connectivity device
100 meters 90 meters to telecommunications closet 10 meters to workstation
Created by: cgeaski