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Physio. Chpt 3

Sapulpa Anatomy, Chapt. 3 - Part 1, Review

Carries out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Cells
Control center of the cell Nucleus
Has Nuclear envelope(membrane), Nucleolus, and Chromatin Nucleus
Contains genetic material (DNA) Nucleus
Barrier of the nucleus Nuclear envelope
Sites of ribosome assembly Nucleoli
Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides Chromatin
Composed of DNA and protein Chromatin
Double phospholipid layer which contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins Plasma Membrane
Barrier for cell contents Plasma Membrane
Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption on the plasma membrane Microvilli
Impermeable junctions tight junctions
Bind cells together into leak-proof sheets tight junctions
Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart Desmosomes
Allow communication between cells Gap junctions
the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytoplasm
Fluid that suspends other elements Cytosol
“Little organs” that perform functions for the cell Organelles
Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products Inclusions
Metabolic machinery of the cell Organelles
“Powerhouses” of the cell Mitochondria
Provides ATP for cellular energy Mitochondria
Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food Mitochondria
Sites of protein synthesis Ribosomes
Free in the cytoplasm and as part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes
Studded with ribosomes and Synthesizes proteins Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Functions in lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Modifies and packages proteins Golgi apparatus
Produces Secretory vesicles, cell membrane components, and lysosomes Golgi apparatus
Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or non-usable materials within the cell lysosomes
Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde and Breaks down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) Peroxisomes
Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes Peroxisomes
Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm Cytoskeleton
Provides the cell with an internal framework Cytoskeleton
Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, and Microtubules Cytoskeleton
Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division Centrioles
Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules used for cell division. Centrioles
used to move materials across the cell surface cilia
Located in the respiratory system to move mucus cilia
used to propel the cell Flagella
only flagellated cell in the human body sperm
No energy is required Passive Transport
Cell must provide metabolic energy (ATP) Active Transport
movement of substances into and out of the cell Cell membrane
fluid on the exterior of the cell Interstitial fluid
nucleoplasm and cytosol Intracellular fluid
components in smaller quantities within a solution Solutes
homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solution
typically water in the solution Solvent
allows some materials to pass while excluding others Selective Permeability
Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient Diffusion
simple diffusion of water Osmosis
Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport Facilitated diffusion
Moves materials out of the cell Exocytosis
Moves materials into the cell Endocytosis
"cell eating' Phagocytosis
"cell drinking" Pinocytosis
Cell grows, Cell carries on metabolic processes, and DNA replicates itself Interphase
genetic material makes a copy of itself. DNA Replication
Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei Mitosis
division of the cytoplasm and results in the formation of two daughter cells. Cytokinesis
First part of cell division Prophase
Centrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers, DNA appears as double-stranded chromosomes, nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears. Prophase
Chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell Metaphase
Chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the opposite ends of the cell Anaphase
Nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin, spindles break down and disappear Telophase
A cleavage furrow forms to pinch the cells into two parts Cytokinesis
Created by: osucowboyup