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networking Chpt 2


standards documented agreements containing technical specifications
OSI model used to describe network communications from computer to computer
ANSI prescribes the kind of NIC that the consumer needs to accept wireless connections
IEEE prescribes how the network will ensure that different parts of a communication sent thru the atmosphere gets where it needs to be
standards refers to the minimal acceptable performance
ieee standards involve communication protocols
ansi standards apply to the nic
ansi and iee set wireless standards
eia and tia focuses on standards for information technology,wireless,satellite,fiber optics and telephone equipment
iso collection of standards organizations representing 162 countries
iso authority applies to textiles,packaging,distribution of goods,
iso authority applies to energy production,utilization,shipbuilding,banking and financial services
itu pertain more to global communications issues than to industry technical specifications
isoc helps to establish technical standards for the internet
iab interested in overseeing the internets design and management
ietf sets standards for how systems communicate over the internet,how protocols operate and interact
ip address address used to identify computers on the internet
iana group that kept records of available and reserved ip addresses.determined how addresses were doled out
rir manages the distribution of ip addresses to private and public entities
icann responsible for ip addressing and domain management
isp provider business that provides organizations and individuals with access to the internet
an isp in turn arranges with its rir for the right to use certain ip addresses on its network
regional internet registries arin apnic ripe
the rir obtains the rights to dole out addresses from icann
the rir coordinates with iana to ensure that the addresses are associated with devices connected to the isp's network
osi open systems interconnection model
physical level one
data link level two
network level three
transport level four
session level five
presentation level six
application level seven
application layer protocols interact with the software used,email
physical layer services act on the networking cables and connectors to issue and receive signals
protocols rules by which computers communicate
osi model theoretical representation of what happens between two nodes communicating on a network
osi model does not prescribe the type of hardware or software that should support each layer
application layer protocol data units
application layer seperates data into discrete amounts of data
application layer facilites communication between software applications and lower layer network services
application layer network interprets application request
application layer application interprets data sent from the network
application layer protocol http
application programming interface set of routines that make up part of the software
presentation layer translator
presentation layer data and format it so that one type of application and host can understand data from another host
presentation layer manage data encryption and decryption
session layer coordinate and maintain communication between two nodes on the network
session refers to the connection for ongoing data exchange between two parties
session layer if connection is lost it will try to reconnect
session layer ensures only authorized nodes can acces the session
presentation layer secure sockets layer, gif,jpg,mpeg,quick time
transport layer ensures data is delivered from point a to point b
transport layer manages end to end delivery of data in correct sequence with no errors
transport layer services needed in order to have data verified or interpreted by its recipient
transport layer flow control
node any device connected to the network
flow control process of gauging the appropriate rate of transmission based on how fast the recipient can receive data
transport layer protocols ensure data arrives exactly as it was sent
transport layer protocols tcp
three way handshake syn packet- syn-ack - ack
connection oriented establish connection before transmit
syn packet requests connection
syn ack confirms it is willing to connect
ack client responds data was delivered
three way handshake connection established
a connection oriented protocol expects a confirmation for every data unit a node sends
if no confirmation is received client assumes data was not sent and resends
check sum a character string that allows the receiving node to determine the data unit matches the source
connectionless protocols used when need to transfer data quickly
connectionless protocols no data verification process
connectionless protocols used for live video or video transmission
connectionless protocols unreliable,do not establish a connection before sending data
transport layer protocols break down large units of data received from the session layer into smaller units called segments
transport layer protocols perform a discovery routine upon establishing a connection in order to determine a networks mtu
transport layer performs segmentation,reassembly and sequencing methods
transport functions accept data from session
transport functions manage end to end delivery
transport functions handle flow control
sequencing method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data
network layer translate network address into their physical counterparts and decided how to route data from sender to receiver
addressing system for assigning unique identification numbers to devices on the network
network layer addresses logical and virtual
hierarchial addressing scheme contain subsets of data that incrementally narrows down the location of the node
network layer the data unit becomes a packet
logical address network address
network address a unique identifying number for a network node that turns the data into a packet
virtual address network address
routing determing the best path
routers devices that connect network segments and direct data
network layer protocol internet protocol
accomplished the same task at the network layer that segmentation performs at the transport layer fragmentation
fragmentation subdivides the segments it receives from the transport layer into smaller packets
time to live mechanism that limits the lifespan or lifetime of data in a computer or network.
IP protocol that instructs the network where the http request is coming from and going
mtu maximum transmission unit
mtu largest data unit network will carry
differentiated services code point pg.51 defines the way routers should queue packets while they are waiting to be forwarded
identification (data packet) pg.51 16-bit number which together with the source address uniquely identifies this packet - used during reassembly of fragmented datagrams)
flags pg.51 (a sequence of three flags (one of the 4 bits is unused) used to control whether routers are allowed to fragment a packet (i.e. the Don't Fragment, DF, flag), and to indicate the parts of a packet to the receiver)
Fragmentation Offset pg.51 a byte count from the start of the original sent packet, set by any router which performs IP router fragmentation
time to live pg.51 Number of hops /links which the packet may be routed over, decremented by most routers - used to prevent accidental routing loops
Protocol in an ip packet pg.51 Service Access Point (SAP) which indicates the type of transport packet being carried (e.g. 1 = ICMP; 2= IGMP; 6 = TCP; 17= UDP).
header checksum (A 1's complement checksum inserted by the sender and updated whenever the packet header is modified by a router -
header checksum Used to detect processing errors introduced into the packet inside a router or bridge where the packet is not protected by a link layer cyclic redundancy check. Packets with an invalid checksum are discarded by all nodes in an IP network)
physical address mac address
types of address physical network
quality of service an example , some packets may require faster more reliable delivery
frame structured package for moving data that includes not only the raw data,the senders and receivers network address,error checking and control info
data link layer divide data they receive from the network layer into distinct frames that can be transmitted by the physical layer
address tells the network where to deliver the frame
data link protocol find out that information has been dropped and asks the first computer to retransmit the message
process of error checking find out that information has been dropped and asks the first computer to retransmit the message
frame check sequence field purpose is to ensure that the data at the destination exactly match the data issued from the source
cyclic redundancy check takes the values of all the preceding fields in the frame and generates a unique 4 byte number the fcs
data link layer controls the flow of this information allowing the nic to process data without error
logical link control sublayer provides an interface to the network layer protocols,manages control flow control and issues requests for transmission for data that have suffered errrors
media access control sublayer manages access to the physical medium
mac address data link layer address hardware address
nics physical addres mac address
two parts of a physical address OUI block id
OUI and
Created by: cgeaski