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Biomechanics Test 1

Chapters 1-3

Application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms Biomechanics
Study of systems in constant motion (including zero motion) (equilibrium) Statics
Study of systes subject to acceleration (changing velocity, speeding up or slowing down) Dynamics
Study of appearance or description of motion (result of kinetics) (time and space) Kinematics
Study of action of forces Kinetics
Study of human movement Kinesiology
Pertaining to quality (without the use of #'s) Qualitative
Involves the use of numbers (what most questions are) Quantitative
What linear and angular kinematics together (at the same damn time) is called (includes most human motion) General Motion
Acceleration x time Velocity
Push or a pull, characterized by magnitude, direction and point of application, Mass x acceleration (represented by F, unit is N, Newton) Force
Compressive forces, pressure, squeezing forces directed axilly through body Compression
Opposite of compression, directed axilly through the body (pulling, stretching force) Tension
3rd category of force, directed parallel to surface Shear
Asymmetric loading that produces a tension force on one side of the body's longitudinal axis and compression on the other side Bending
Rotation along the longitudinal axis of the body (load-producing twisting of the body) Torsion
Quantity that has magnitude and direction, represented with an arrow (force, weight, pressure) Vectors
Vectors added together, determining a single vector from two or more vectors by vector addition (Vector) Composition
Replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors, vector composition of two perpendicular vectors yields the original vector (Vector) Resolution
Repeated application of a subacute load of relatively low magnitude (chronic injury) Repetitive Loading
Application of sufficient force to cause injury to a biological tissue (acute injury) Acute Loading
Exceeding ultimate failure point, mechanical failure of structure (fx) Deformation
Object's ability to stay in motion, tendency of a body to resist a change in its state of motion, proportional to mass, has no untis Inertia
Elastic vs plastic, involves collision of two bodies over a small time to which both objects exert a large force over each other Impact
Quantity of motion, must have mass and velocity, units are kg.m/sec Momentum
Rotary effect created by an eccentric force, moment of force, angular equivalent of linear force Torque
Center of mass, point which the body's weight is equally balanced no matter position, serves as index of total body motion Center of Gravity
Biological systems Bio
Analysis of the action of force Mechanics
Encompasses both clinical and scientific aspects of exercise and sport Sports Medicine
Closer to head Superior
Father from head Inferior
Towards front of body Anterior
Towards back of body Posterior
Toward the midline of the body Medial
Away from midline of the body Lateral
Closer to truck Proximal
Further from truck Distal
Towards surface of body Superficial
Inside the body away from the surface Deep
Plane in which forward and backward movements occur Sagittal Plane
Plane in which lateral movements occur Frontal Plane
Plane in which rotational movements occur Transverse Plane
Axis around which rotations in sagittal plane occur (sagittal) Mediolateral Axis
Axis around which rotations in sagittal plane occur (frontal) Anteroposterior Axis
Axis around which rotational movements occur Longitudinal Axis
Form of motion along a line Linear Motion
Form of motion along a straight line Rectilinear Motion
Form of motion along a curved line Curvilinear Motion
Body or portion of a body deliberately chosen by an analyst Mechanical System
Quantity of matter composing a body (represented by m, untis are kg) Mass
Change in motion, rate of change of velocity over time, inversely proportional to mass (represented by a, units are m/s2) Acceleration
Diagram showing vector representations of all forces acting on a defined system Free Body Diagram
Single resultant force derived from vector composition of all acting forces, force determining net effect of all acting forces on a body Net Force
Index of elasticity between colliding bodies, ranges from 0 (perfectly plastic) to 1 (perfectly elastic) Coefficient of Restitution
Attractive force that the earth exerts on a body, product of mass and acceleration of gravity, unit is N (b/c weight is force) Weight
Point of application of weight force Body's Center of Gravity
Force per unit of area which the force acts, describes force districution within a fluid (units are N/m2) Pressure
Force per unit of area over which the force acts, commonly used to describe force distribution within a solid (units are N/m2) Stress
Space occupied by a body, three dimensional (width, height, depth) (units are m3, and cm3) Volume
Mass per unit of volume, small greek letter rho, units are kg/m3 Density
Weight per unit of volume, greek letter gamma, units are N/m3 Specific Weight
Product of force and time over which the force acts (units are Ns) Impulse
Created by: CCJones117