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# Biomechanics Test 1

### Chapters 1-3

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms | Biomechanics |

Study of systems in constant motion (including zero motion) (equilibrium) | Statics |

Study of systes subject to acceleration (changing velocity, speeding up or slowing down) | Dynamics |

Study of appearance or description of motion (result of kinetics) (time and space) | Kinematics |

Study of action of forces | Kinetics |

Study of human movement | Kinesiology |

Pertaining to quality (without the use of #'s) | Qualitative |

Involves the use of numbers (what most questions are) | Quantitative |

What linear and angular kinematics together (at the same damn time) is called (includes most human motion) | General Motion |

Acceleration x time | Velocity |

Push or a pull, characterized by magnitude, direction and point of application, Mass x acceleration (represented by F, unit is N, Newton) | Force |

Compressive forces, pressure, squeezing forces directed axilly through body | Compression |

Opposite of compression, directed axilly through the body (pulling, stretching force) | Tension |

3rd category of force, directed parallel to surface | Shear |

Asymmetric loading that produces a tension force on one side of the body's longitudinal axis and compression on the other side | Bending |

Rotation along the longitudinal axis of the body (load-producing twisting of the body) | Torsion |

Quantity that has magnitude and direction, represented with an arrow (force, weight, pressure) | Vectors |

Vectors added together, determining a single vector from two or more vectors by vector addition | (Vector) Composition |

Replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors, vector composition of two perpendicular vectors yields the original vector | (Vector) Resolution |

Repeated application of a subacute load of relatively low magnitude (chronic injury) | Repetitive Loading |

Application of sufficient force to cause injury to a biological tissue (acute injury) | Acute Loading |

Exceeding ultimate failure point, mechanical failure of structure (fx) | Deformation |

Object's ability to stay in motion, tendency of a body to resist a change in its state of motion, proportional to mass, has no untis | Inertia |

Elastic vs plastic, involves collision of two bodies over a small time to which both objects exert a large force over each other | Impact |

Quantity of motion, must have mass and velocity, units are kg.m/sec | Momentum |

Rotary effect created by an eccentric force, moment of force, angular equivalent of linear force | Torque |

Center of mass, point which the body's weight is equally balanced no matter position, serves as index of total body motion | Center of Gravity |

Biological systems | Bio |

Analysis of the action of force | Mechanics |

Encompasses both clinical and scientific aspects of exercise and sport | Sports Medicine |

Closer to head | Superior |

Father from head | Inferior |

Towards front of body | Anterior |

Towards back of body | Posterior |

Toward the midline of the body | Medial |

Away from midline of the body | Lateral |

Closer to truck | Proximal |

Further from truck | Distal |

Towards surface of body | Superficial |

Inside the body away from the surface | Deep |

Plane in which forward and backward movements occur | Sagittal Plane |

Plane in which lateral movements occur | Frontal Plane |

Plane in which rotational movements occur | Transverse Plane |

Axis around which rotations in sagittal plane occur (sagittal) | Mediolateral Axis |

Axis around which rotations in sagittal plane occur (frontal) | Anteroposterior Axis |

Axis around which rotational movements occur | Longitudinal Axis |

Form of motion along a line | Linear Motion |

Form of motion along a straight line | Rectilinear Motion |

Form of motion along a curved line | Curvilinear Motion |

Body or portion of a body deliberately chosen by an analyst | Mechanical System |

Quantity of matter composing a body (represented by m, untis are kg) | Mass |

Change in motion, rate of change of velocity over time, inversely proportional to mass (represented by a, units are m/s2) | Acceleration |

Diagram showing vector representations of all forces acting on a defined system | Free Body Diagram |

Single resultant force derived from vector composition of all acting forces, force determining net effect of all acting forces on a body | Net Force |

Index of elasticity between colliding bodies, ranges from 0 (perfectly plastic) to 1 (perfectly elastic) | Coefficient of Restitution |

Attractive force that the earth exerts on a body, product of mass and acceleration of gravity, unit is N (b/c weight is force) | Weight |

Point of application of weight force | Body's Center of Gravity |

Force per unit of area which the force acts, describes force districution within a fluid (units are N/m2) | Pressure |

Force per unit of area over which the force acts, commonly used to describe force distribution within a solid (units are N/m2) | Stress |

Space occupied by a body, three dimensional (width, height, depth) (units are m3, and cm3) | Volume |

Mass per unit of volume, small greek letter rho, units are kg/m3 | Density |

Weight per unit of volume, greek letter gamma, units are N/m3 | Specific Weight |

Product of force and time over which the force acts (units are Ns) | Impulse |