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Chapter 2 Net

Networking Standards and the OSI Model

__________Allows user access to the network examples:HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP, DNS, and Telnet (Remote Access). Devices: Hosts / PCs. Application Layer
________Defines format of the data examples:SSL, TLS. Graphics: TIFF, JPEG, GIF. Text: ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode, Encrypted. Audio: MIDI, MPEG, WAV, MP3. Video: QUICKTIME, AVI. Presentation Layer
________Establishes, manages, maintains, and terminates network connections (sessions) between nodes example:NFS (Network File System),RPC (Remote Procedure Call), ASP (AppleTalk Session Protocol) Session layer 5
To ensure data integrity further, connection-oriented protocols such as TCP use a checksum
Every network type specifies a default MTU ( maximum transmission unit ), (though its size can be modified to some extent by a network administrator). For example, by default, Ethernet networks cannot accept packets with data payloads larger than 1500 bytes
The process of reconstructing the segmented data units is called Reassembly
The process of assigning a placeholder to each piece of a data block to allow the receiving node's Transport layer to reassemble the data in the correct order. is called Sequencing. For sequencing to work properly, the Transport layer protocols of two nodes must synchronize their timing and agree on a starting point for the transmission.
____ provide Reliability, Error notification and correction and Flow control by dividing the whole data cloud into smaller data streams (“Segmentation”) Also reassembles at destination (“Reassembly”) Transport layer
__________is the process of travels with data in the packet. example: IP, IXP routed
________used by routers to make best-path decisions (used to build the routing tBGPables) example: RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, Routing
The _______Establishes and controls physical topology, creates frames, detects errors (but does not correct them), uses MAC Address Data Link layer
Physical addresses (also known as MAC addresses) are 48- or 64-bit unique identifiers assigned to each network interface.
________Concerned with “signals and media”…the hardware and physical connection. example: Coax, Twisted-Pair, Fiber, Wireless Physical layer
Connection-Oriented” (TCP) Ensures that data arrives exactly as it was sent. Establishes connection before transmitting data
Connectionless” (UDP) (live audio or video transmissions over the Internet) No effort to ensure data delivered error-free Does not establish connection before transmitting . Used in communications where “connections” ARE inherently established
Handshaking communications that occur between opposite ends of a line (uses sequencing numbers and acknowledgements) SYN, SYN-ACK, ACK
________amount of data that can be transmitted at one time before receiving an acknowledgment from the destination Window size
__________structured package for moving data Frame
_________physical layout of computers on a network Ring, Bus, Star, Mesh Physical Topology
architecture of a network…(Frame Types) EX: Ethernet, Token Ring Logical Topology
___________Provides interface to Network layer protocols. Manages flow control. Issues requests for transmission for data that has suffered errors Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer
_______Manages access to physical layer. Appends destination computer’s physical address onto data frame. Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer
MAC addresses contain two parts: 1st six hexadecimal digits: Block ID (or Vendor ID Device ID: unique character sequence based on NIC’s model and manufacture date
Please Do Not Throw , Sausage Pizza Away
The process of wrapping one layer's PDU with protocol information so that it can be interpreted by a lower layer. is called . encapsulate: For example, Data Link layer protocols encapsulate Network layer packets in frames
__________are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that stipulate how a particular product or service should be designed or performed Standards
ANSI American National Standards Institute
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ISOC Internet Society
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Created by: fofo1986