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PET 3097 - 1

Health and Wellness Exam 1 Review

Health A condition with multiple dimensions that falls on a continuum from negative health, characterized by illness and premature death, to positive health, characterized by the capacity to enjoy life and to withstand life’s challenges.
Wellness An active process of adopting patterns of behavior that can improve health and individual perceptions of well-being and quality of life in terms of multiple, intertwined dimensions.
Physical fitness The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time activities and to meet the physical demands of any unforeseen emergencies.
Physical wellness Dimension of wellness referring to the complete physical condition and functioning of the body; focuses on behaviors that support physical aspects of health, including diet, exercise, sleep, stress management, and self-care.
Emotional wellness Dimension of wellness that focuses on one’s ability to manage and express emotions in constructive and appropriate ways.
Intellectual wellness Dimension of wellness that focuses on developing and enhancing one’s knowledge base and critical thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills.
Social wellness Dimension of wellness that focuses on one’s ability to develop and maintain positive, healthy, satisfying interpersonal relationships and appropriate support networks.
Spiritual wellness Dimension of wellness that focuses on developing a set of values, beliefs, or principles that give meaning and purpose to life and guide one’s actions and choices.
Environmental wellness Dimension of wellness that focuses on the condition and livability of the local environment and the planet as a whole.
Life expectancy The average number of years people born in a given year are expected to live.
Risk factor A factor that increases susceptibility for the development, onset, or progression of a disease or an injury.
Communicable disease A disease that can be passed from one person to another; also known as an infectious disease; typically caused by a pathogen such as a bacterium or virus.
Non-communicable disease A disease that is not infectious or contagious; many are chronic diseases that develop over time and are the result of the interplay of genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors.
Predisposing factors Preexisting factors such as heredity, gender, beliefs, attitudes, values, and knowledge that influence health behavior.
Enabling factors Factors that make it possible or easier for an individual to change a health behavior.
Reinforcing factors Factors such as rewards that follow a behavior and either increase or decrease the likelihood of repeating the behavior.
Motivation An energized state that directs and sustains behavior.
Internal locus of control Belief that the source of power or control in one’s life resides in oneself—in one’s own hard work, attributes, actions, and choices.
External locus of control Belief that the source of power or control in one’s life resides outside oneself—in chance, fate, and the actions of others.
Self-efficacy Belief in one’s capability to perform a task that leads to a specific outcome.
Physical activity Bodily movement involving contraction of skeletal muscles and requiring calorie expenditure.
Exercise Planned, structured, repetitive body movements conducted specifically to develop components of physical fitness.
Skill-related fitness Components or areas of fitness that don’t have a direct effect on overall health but do contribute to the ability to function in a skilled and efficient way; also called performance-related fitness.
Health-related fitness Components or areas of fitness that have a direct effect on overall health.
Agility Ability to change the direction and position of the body in a quick and precise manner.
Balance Ability to maintain equilibrium whether sitting, standing, or moving.
Coordination Ability to synchronize multiple movement patterns into sequenced, efficient, controlled movements.
Power Ability to exert a maximum amount of force in a minimum amount of time.
Reaction time Amount of time between a certain stimulus and your response to that stimulus.
Speed Ability to perform movement in a short period of time.
Cardiorespiratory endurance Ability of the respiratory and circulatory systems to provide oxygen to muscles for sustained physical activity; also called cardiorespiratory fitness.
Flexibility Ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion.
Body composition Relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital tissues of the body.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) A widely used assessment tool developed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology that guides people in determining whether to seek medical clearance prior to beginning or increasing an exercise program.
FITT formula Acronym for the foundational components of exercise training and program design
Target zone Optimal intensity range for achieving maximum fitness benefits from exercise.
Warm-up 5-10 minutes of low-intensity activity that prepares the body for exercise.
Cool-down 5-10 minutes of slower paced activity that helps the body transition to a normal or resting state after a session of exercise.
Progressive overload Gradual application of increasing amounts of stress (load) on the body during exercise training; the body responds by increasing fitness.
Reversibility Fitness declines with a decrease or discontinuance of activity.
Recovery The body requires time to rebuild and improve tissues that are weakened from increased activity (overload).
Specificity The body adapts to the types and amounts of specific stress placed on it.
Heat index Guide that combines outside air temperature and humidity into a single measure of perceived temperature (how hot it feels).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A complex chemical compound formed with the energy released from food; produced in the mitochondria of cells, it is the main energy source of most cellular functions.
Aerobic Occurring in the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic energy system The system responsible for most energy production in the body through the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system; takes place in the mitochondria and requires glucose and oxygen; also known as aerobic respiration.
Alveoli Tiny sacs in the lungs covered by blood vessels, serving as the site of gas exchange.
Anaerobic Occurring in the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic energy system The system responsible for initial production of energy; requires glucose but no oxygen, and produces a net of only two ATP molecules; can provide energy for only short periods of physical effort; also known as the glycolysis.
Arteries Elastic vessels throughout the body that carry blood away from the heart; they are responsible for transporting oxygen-rich blood to the muscles.
Asthma A medical condition characterized by airway inflammation and constriction of breathing passages, which makes breathing difficult; in some cases, can be exacerbated by exercise.
ATP/PC energy system The immediate energy system that powers activities requiring an immediate burst of energy (no more than 10 seconds); powered by stored ATP and creatine phosphate.
Burnout Physical and emotional exhaustion from exercise.
Cardiac output The amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) Ability of the respiratory and circulatory systems to provide the necessary oxygen to skeletal muscles to sustain regular physical activity; also known as cardiorespiratory endurance, aerobic endurance, and aerobic fitness.
Cardiorespiratory (CR) system The heart, lungs, and network of blood vessels.
Capillaries The smallest blood vessels, with walls so thin that substances can pass between the blood they carry and the surrounding cells and tissues; the site where oxygen and carbon dioxide are transferred between skeletal muscles cells and the bloodstream.
Catabolized A chemical process by which large complex molecules are broken down into simpler compounds; the simpler compounds can be oxidized, releasing energy.
Chronic bronchitis Chronic or persistent inflammation of the bronchi in the lung.
Creatine phosphate A form of rapidly mobilized energy available to the skeletal muscles and the brain; also known as phosphocreatine.
Cross-training A pattern of training that alternates different activities (modes of exercise) that develop the same fitness component; may be done to improve performance or to avoid or
Emphysema A condition characterized by progressive destruction of the alveoli, making breathing, especially exhalation, difficult; with chronic bronchitis, known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Glucose A form of carbohydrate (simple sugar) circulating in the blood; used by the body for energy (ATP) production; derived from food sources.
Glycogen A form of stored blood sugar (glucose) typically derived from food; stored in limited amounts in skeletal muscle, liver, and brain.
Glycolysis An anaerobic chemical reaction that converts glucose into pyruvate, yielding a small number of ATP.
Heart rate maximum (HR max) method A method of calculating target cardiorespiratory endurance exercise intensity based on a percentage range of maximum heart rate.
Heart rate reserve (HRR) method A method of calculating target cardiorespiratory endurance exercise intensity based on a percentage range of heart rate reserve, which is the difference between resting heart rate and maximum heart rate.
Interval training Interspersing higher intensity bouts of exercise periodically throughout a workout in order to increase maximal oxygen consumption.
Lactate threshold (LT) The exercise intensity at which significant amounts of lactic acid accumulates in the blood; at or above this intensity, performance suffers; LT can be increased through training.
Lactic acid A chemical by-product of ATP production; at low levels, it can be reconverted into ATP, but at high levels it is detrimental to performance.
Maximum heart rate The maximum number of beats per minute of the heart, which can be measured directly through laboratory testing or estimated according to age; the value typically decreases with age starting around 20 years.
Maximum volume of oxygen consumed (VO2max) The maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed and used by skeletal muscles, typically reported in terms of milliliters of oxygen consumed per minute per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/min); considered one of the best measures of aerobic fitness.
Metabolic equivalents (METs) A physiological concept expressing the energy cost of any physical activity relative to resting metabolic rate; the value of sitting at rest is defined as 1.0 MET; more vigorous activities have higher MET requirements.
Mitochondria Structures within cells in which most of the chemical reactions in cellular (oxidative) respiration occur; also known as cellular “power plants,” as they are the location for most ATP production.
Progression Gradual increases in frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise in order for the body to adapt and increase fitness.
Pyruvic acid An end product of glycolysis; in aerobic metabolism, pyruvate is sent to the Krebs cycle to aid in the production of ATP; in anaerobic metabolism, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) A scale that provides a subjective measure of exercise intensity; widely used in the absence of heart rate monitoring.
Respiratory system The lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles; allows for gas exchange, with the body taking in oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide.
Stroke volume The amount of blood pumped by the heart in each beat.
Talk test A qualitative assessment of exercise intensity based on the ability to talk during exercise.
Target heart rate range A range of heart rates that reflect an intensity of exercise that will result in cardiorespiratory fitness improvement.
Vascular system The body’s network of blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries); blood travels in the vascular system throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients and picking up carbon dioxide and other waste products.
Veins Blood vessels responsible for storing most of the blood at rest and for returning blood to the heart.
Volume of oxygen consumed (VO2) The absolute amount of oxygen that can be consumed and used by an individual. Usually reported in liters per minute and highly correlated to body size.
muscle fitness The ability of one or more muscles to perform routine tasks without undue fatigue.
muscle force The speed with which a muscle can move a given object one time. The force of a muscle depends on its size, length, speed, and the joint angle. A muscle develops greater force when it is elongated, and less force when it is shortened.
muscle endurance The ability to sustain an effort for an extended time. This is often measured by determining the maximum number of repetitions of a given resistance.
muscle strength The ability of one or more muscles to exert force by contracting against resistance. This is often measured by determining the most weight lifted during one effort.
muscle power The ability of a muscle to move an object quickly and repeatedly.
skeletal muscle Muscle tissue that is connected to bones and moves them in order to produce body movement.
cardiac muscle A specialized muscle tissue found only in the heart. It has its own electrical conduction system and keeps the heart beating in response to the body’s need for oxygen. Cardiac muscle is much less resistant to fatigue than other muscle types.
smooth muscle Muscle tissue in the walls of body organs such as the stomach and intestines. It controls involuntary movement and makes the organs expand and contract.
tendon The fibrous connective tissue by which a muscle attaches to a bone.
ligament A sheet or band of tough, fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilage at a joint or supporting an organ.
muscle fiber (muscle cell) Each skeletal muscle consists of hundreds or thousands of tiny fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective-tissue covering. Muscle fibers coordinate muscle contractions for movement.
myofibrils Microscopic protein filaments that make up muscle cells.
nucleus (plural, nuclei) A structure in a cell that contains most of the cell’s genetic material, which controls gene expression. Muscle cells have multiple nuclei, enhancing their ability to synthesize proteins and to grow.
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SER) In muscle cells, a network of vesicles and tubules that store calcium, which is released as one step in the muscle-contraction process.
sliding filament theory (SFT) An explanation of how muscles shorten, or produce force. According to the SFT, thick and thin filaments within muscle cells slide past one another to shorten the muscle. This process requires the presence of ATP.
slow-twitch muscle fibers (type I) Muscle fibers that have a slow rate of force generation. Slow-twitch fibers are highly dependent on oxygen and can sustain a given effort indefinitely.
fast-twitch muscle fibers (types IIa and IIx) Muscle fibers that have a fast rate of force production. Fast-twitch fibers can produce force with little, if any, oxygen, but cannot sustain an effort for very long.
hypertrophy An increase in the size of muscle fibers, typically accomplished through resistance training.
testosterone Derived from cholesterol, this anabolic steroid hormone is the principal male sex hormone and is critical for increasing muscle mass. The average male produces about 50x more than a female, thereby allowing men to produce greater muscle mass than women.
sarcopenia An age-related loss of muscle fiber, muscle strength, and muscle mass.
atrophy A decrease in the size of muscle fibers, typically as a result of chronic disuse.
osteoporosis A progressive decrease in bone mineral density that leads to an increased risk of fracture. It is more common in women than in men, especially after menopause.
1-repetition maximum (1-RM) The maximum amount of weight lifted one time.
static (isometric) training Resistance exercise against a stationary force, in which force is applied to an immovable object, so the agonist muscle does not change in length. Used in rehabilitation settings because strength gains are limited to the range of motion used.
range of motion (ROM) The full range through which a joint can move.
isokinetic training Resistance exercise in which the resistance varies throughout the ROM, thereby ensuring a constant rate of speed. This training requires specialized equipment and is typically done in a rehabilitation setting.
dynamic (isotonic) training Exercise exerting muscle force throughout contraction, varying resistance and speed because muscle is weaker at longest and shortest lengths. Most common form of muscle training. Can be done with body weight, machines, free weights, and other devices.
concentric contraction Skeletal muscle movement leading to shortening of the agonist muscle.
eccentric contraction Skeletal muscle movement leading to lengthening of the agonist muscle.
agonist muscle The muscle primarily responsible for movement of a bone.
antagonist muscle The muscle opposite the agonist, which must relax and lengthen during contraction of the agonist.
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) Muscle soreness experienced 12–36 hours after increased exertion. The exact cause of DOMS is unknown, but it may be related to microtears in muscle cells. The discomfort usually subsides within 24 hours.
microtears Tiny tears in muscle fibers that are believed to be at least partly responsible for DOMS.
core training Training that focuses on the muscles of the abdominal region and lower back. By stabilizing the spine, it can improve posture and decrease risk of falls.
functional training Training that mimics real-life movement patterns and integrates multiple muscle groups.
anabolic steroids Synthetic steroids designed to increase muscle mass (size and strength). Undesirable side effects include severe mood swings, decreased libido, decreased testicle size, decreased sperm production, and increased male sexual traits in women.
Created by: selfstudy08