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Cerebrovascular accident (CVA); stroke/ brain attack results from an interruption in the blood flow to the brain, either bc of a blocked blood vessel or ruptures; can occur in any part of the brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, or brainstem; can lead to brain damage
Infarct site & extent of the affected area of a CVA
What are the two main types of strokes? ischemic & hemorrhagic
Ischemia lack of blood supply; constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel, often leading to death (necrosis) of the surrounding tissue
Ischemic stroke characterized by blockages & include atherothrombotic, lacunar, & embolic infarctions, in that order of frequency
Hemorrhagic Stroke (includes intracerebral & subarachnoid hemorrhages) caused by a rupture in a blood vessel or an aneurysm, with resultant bleeding into or around cerebral tissue or the subarachnoid space
Atherosclerosis deposits of fatty substances in arteries, veins, & the lymphatic system & is a gradual degenerative disease of the blood vessel walls; it’s a form of arteriorsclerosis in which deposits of plaques (atheromas) containing cholesterol & other lipid material
Atheromas degenerated, thickened material (plaque); abnormal mass of fatty or lipid material w/a fibrous covering, which forms a discrete raised plaque w/in the inner layer (intima) of an artery
Cerebral thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in one of the arteries supplying the brain, causing vascular obstruction at the point of its formation; occurs most frequently in blood vessels that have already been damaged by atherosclerosis
Thrombus blood clot; comprised of such blood factors as platelets & fibrin; most common cause of stroke
Stenosis narrowing of the blood vessel; results in fewer cases of strokes
Collateral circulation secondary circulation that continues to an area of the brain following obstruction of a primary blood vessel & may prevent major ischemia
Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) episode of temporary SX, due to diminished blood flow through the carotid arteries or sometimes related to impaired circulation through the vertebrobasilar vessels. TIA is a powerful warning sign of a stroke, & SX can range from obvious loss of sensati
Ataxia inability to coordinated muscle activity during voluntary movement
Homonymous Hemianopsia loss of one half of the visual field, on the same side, in both eyes; usually the result of a CVA
Embolism occurs when a clot that has formed elsewhere (thrombus) breaks off (embolus), & travels up the blood stream until it reaches an artery too small to pass
Aneurysm bulging or outpouching of a wall of an artery as a result of weakness in the vessel wall; prone to rupture at any time; one cause of hemorrhagic stroke (other cause is a ruptured blood vessel)
Arteriovenous referring to both an artery & a vein
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal collection of blood vessels near the surface of the brain; AVM can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage
Hematoma localized collection of blood in an organ or w/in a tissue; common forms include contusions (bruises) & black eyes; most common types affecting the brain are epidural & subdural.
Hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body; paralysis occurs on the opposite side of the lesion or infarct
Associated reactions involuntary movements or reflexive increases in tone on the affected side of individuals w/hemiplegia; ex. A resisted grasp by the noninvolved hand causes a grasp reaction in the involved hand
Spasticity (hypertonicity) abnormally high tone
Decussation an x-shaped crossing, especially of nerves or bands of nerve fibers, connecting parts on opposite sides of the brain or spinal cord
Dysarthria imperfect articulation of speech caused by disturbances of muscular control (of the lips, mouth, tongue, & vocal cords) resulting from CNS or PNS damage
Unilateral neglect inattention to the individual’s side of the body/environment that is contralateral to a cerebral lesion
Apraxia inability to motor plan, execute purposeful movement, manipulate objects, or use objects appropriately; loss of skilled purposeful movements
Dysphagia difficulty swallowing
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) thrombosis, commonly seen in the legs or pelvis, that results from phlebitis (inflammation of a vein), vein injury, or prolonged bed rest
Endarterectomy during the procedure the diseased vessel is opened, the clot is removed, & an artificial graft is put in place; carotid endarterectomy is among the most commonly performed vascular surgeries in the US.
Agnosia inability to comprehend sensory info (auditory, visual, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, etc.) due to CNS damage
Flaccidity (hypotonus) abnormally low muscle tone
Constraint-induced therapy Term used to denote a "family of treatment modalities" in which the common feature is discouraging the use of the unaffected or less affected arm, combined with intensive training of the paretic arm; see table 9.1, pg .142
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) medications used for dissolution of an occluding thrombus
Created by: sheaton
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