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Ther. Modalities

Test 2

Inflammation is what? the local response of the body to an irritant.
What is the purpose of inflammation? defend the body against alien substances and dispose of dead and dying tissue so repair can take place.
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation? rubor, calor, edema, dolor, and funca laesa.
Rubor is what? redness.
Calor is what? heat.
Edema is what? swelling.
Dolor is what? pain.
Funca laesa is what? functional loss.
Inflammation is necessary.
There is no healing without what? inflammation.
What are the 8 phases of inflammation? primary injury, ultrastructural changes, chemical mediation, hemodynamic changes, metabolic changes, permeability changes, leukocyte migration, and phagocytosis.
Primary injury is what? any occurrence that impairs tissue structure or function.
What are the types of injury? macrotrauma, microtrauma, physical, metabolic, biological, and chemical.
Ultrastructural changes is when? the cellular membrane is disrupted and eventually breaks down and contents spill out into the extracellular spaces, thereby killing the damaged cell.
What are the two causes ultrastructural changes? direct (trauma) and indirect (hypoxia & enzymes)
What are the chemical mediators? histamine, bradykinin, and other chemical mediators.
Chemical mediators are activated by what? ultrastructural changes.
Chemical mediators do what? signal the body there's damage and direct the body to respond.
Chemical mediators modify and regulate the rest of the inflammatory response to what? neutralize the cause of the injury and remove cellular debris so repair can take place.
Hemodynamic changes do what? mobilize and transport components of the blood to the injury site.
Leukocytes do what? marginate, tumble along the vessel wall, adhere to the vessel wall near an opening.
During the metabolic changes cells need what? energy (ATP).
Decreased oxygen=?=? decreased energy= cells switch to anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis).
Membrane attacked= lysosome digests cell.
Continued anaerobic metabolism= increased intracellular acidosis (lactic acid).
Lysosomes do what? supply chemicals that digest foreign material within the cell and gets rid of it.
During permeability changes histamine and bradykinin increase what? the permeability of small blood vessels.
Leukocyte Migration includes what? neutrophils and macrophages.
Neutrophils travel fast and arrive at the injury site first.
Neutrophils provide what? the first line of defense against bacterial infection.
Neutrophils can cause damage to what? healthy cells.
Neutrophils when they die, they release what? (7 hours) they release chemical mediators that attract macrophages.
Macrophages live for how long? months.
Macrophages are the long-lasting what? second line of defense.
Macrophages main function is what? to clean up cellular debris.
Macrophages release what? chemical mediators that may prolong inflammation and aid in healing.
Leukocytes engulf what? and who moves it? bacterium and lysosomes move it.
Phagocytosis creates what? free proteins and edema.
Chronic inflammation results from what? microtrauma or recurring acute inflammation.
Chronic inflammation occurs when? inflammation response unable to eliminate cause of injury and restore normal function.
Blood and debris= hematoma.
Hematoma presses on nerve fibers= more pain.
The inflammatory response is not all ____. positive.
Secondary injury model is what? the body's response to tissue damaged by trauma (primary injury) leads to further tissue damage, known as secondary injury.
What are the two mechanisms that result in secondary injury? Enzymatic and hypoxia.
Localized ischemia= deficiency in ATP production.
Deficiency in ATP production is due to what? hypoxia, poor fuel delivery, and poor waste removal.
Secondary metabolic injury is caused by what? blood vessel damage and decreased blood flow.
Hemorrhaging is what kind of swelling? the initial swelling.
Edema formation is what kind of swelling? the next day swelling.
Hemorrhaging is what? bleeding from damaged blood vessel walls; controlled through clotting.
Hydrostatic pressure is what? pressure exerted by a column of water.
Hydrostatic pressure is exerted by what? the water portion of blood.
Hydrostatic pressure pushes what? water.
Capillary hydrostatic pressure pushes what? fluid out of the capillary.
Tissue hydrostatic pressure pushes what? fluid into the capillary.
Secondary injury results in what? increased edema.
How does cold decrease swelling? it doesn't.
Ice can what? limit or reduce edema, not decrease it.
RICES stand for what? Rest, ice, compression, elevation, and stabilization.
What are the three orthopedic injury care stages? acute, subacute, postacute.
Why RICES? to limit total injury, swelling, pain, further injury, and muscle spasm.
Cold decreases what? blood flow.
Compression why? helps control edema formation.
Elevation why? decreases capillary and tissue hydrostatic pressure.
Stabilization why? to support injured limb so muscles can relax.
What is the goal of cold? decrease tissue metabolism.
Cold is the absence of what? heat.
Factors that affect tissue cooling? size of cold modality, surface area contact, length of application, individual variability, and heat capacity of modalities.
Prevent swelling is what? decrease metabolism. cold effective.
Remove swelling is what? stimulate lymph flow. cold is a waste of time.
Ace bandage is preferred when wrapping ice. True or false? true.
Cold urticaria is what? allergic to ice. you get a rash.
The more protein in the area means what? the bigger the scar.
Repair follows what? inflammation.
Repair begins when? within a couple of days after injury.
Repair begins depending on what? the size of the hematoma.
What are the two types of repair? reconstitution with the same type of cells as were injured and replacement with simpler cells.
In reconstitution most of the damaged cells are replaced with what? by identical cells.
Replacement results in what? scar tissue formation.
What are the four phases of repair? cellular, vascular, collagenization, contraction and restructuring.
Cellular repair= leukocyte migration and phagocytosis.
Vascular repair forms what? new vessels.
Capillary budding is the primary mechanism of what? the vascular phase.
Collagenization is what? manufacturing and laying down collagen in the would space.
Collagen is what? the principle solid substance of ligaments, tendons, and scar tissue.
Fibroblasts manufacture what? strands of collagen, then extrude it into the wound space.
Collagenization requires great amounts of what? oxygen.
Contraction and reconstructing are two processes that affect what? collagen by which scars become smaller and paler.
Created by: danreid