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Dementia condition characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, w/the main deficit being impairment of memory; memory loss is the hallmark/ most significant symptom
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) most common form of dementia; progressive impairment of memory, executive function, attention, language, visual processing, & praxis; behavioral disturbances are common
Delirium characterized by confused mental state with changes in attention, perceptual disturbance (hallucinations, delusions), incoherence, disturbed consciousness, cognitive change; usually has a brief duration
Senile dementia term used when the medical community believed that memory loss was a normal part of the aging process; “senile” literally means age 65 or older – considered negative
Vascular Dementia caused by one or more strokes that occur when blood cannot get to the brain; can be caused by blood clots or fat deposits; a stroke can also be caused when a blood vessel in the brain bursts
Prodromal SX of delirium can include: restlessness, anxiety, sleep disturbance, & irritability
Prodromal prelim phase of an illness which warn of upcoming major/ primary SX
Dysnomic aphasia difficulty naming objects
Dysgraphia inability to write a sentence
Constructional apraxia evidenced by inability to draw a clock face or inability to draw geometric designs or figures
Asterixis hand flapping tremor
Neurologic abnormalities of Delirium include: dysgraphia, constructional apraxia, dysnomic aphasia, motor abnormalities (tremor, asterixis), myoclonus or muscle spasms, reflex/ tone changes
Sundowning condition in which a person w/ cognitive impairment becomes confused or disoriented at the end of the day
Neuroleptic med having antipsychotic action, affecting sensorimotor, cognitive, & psych functions
Analgesic pain medication
What are the cognitive deficits seen with Dementia? aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in executive functioning, recent memory, & memory impairment
Aphasia difficulty w/ expressive and/or receptive language; impaired language
Apraxia inability to motor plan, execute purposeful movement, manipulate objects, or use objects appropriately; loss of skilled purposeful movement; can affect ideation & concept formation as well as programming & planning of movement
Agnosia inability to comprehend sensory info (auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, tactile, proprioceptor, & vestibular) due to CNS damage; ex. - the inability to recognize familiar objects by sight or touch
Topographic orientation self orientation w/in the environment; T.O. w/ memory loss can result in people with dementia & delirium
What are the best DX tools for confirming a DX of AD? Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Magnetic resonance volumetry, , diffusion-tensor imaging, cerebrospinal fluid assays, positron emission tomography, & electroencephalography
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuroimaging tool that uses radiology to visualize detailed internal structures; used to detect the earliest changes of AD or to differentiate AD from other forms of dementia
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy DX tool that measures the levels of different metabolites in body tissues
Magnetic resonance volumetry DX tool that measures the volume of the internal structures of the body
Cerebrospinal fluid assays DX tool that measures biomarkers in CSF
Diffusion-tensor imaging DX tool that uses MRI methods to produce images of the structure & organization of the connections throughout the CNS
Electroencephalography (EEG) DX tool uses for testing the electrical activity of the brain
Positron emission tomography (PET) a nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a 3D image of the functional processes of the body
Neurofibrillary tangles contaminated tau protein that becomes twisted & cause eventual cell death; the shrinking of brain structures is a result of neural loss caused by this & beta-amyloid plaques
Beta-amyloid plaques an accumulation of amyloid precursor proteins that have not been correctly broken down in the body; can also be caused by a chemical accident; the shrinking of brain structures is a result of neural loss caused by this & neurofibrillary tangles
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) defective breakdown of this benign substance causes beta-amyloid plaque; it lives in various parts of the body (including the brain), & it’s role in cellular functioning is unknown
Tau a type of protein; protein that makes up neurofibrillary tangles; normally serves as connectors (“railroad ties”) for a track-like structure that transports nutrients & other important molecules throughout every cell body of every neuron
Recent memory cognitive ability to temporarily store & manage info that’s required to carry out cognitive tasks (learning/ reasoning); aka short-term or working memory
Remote memory cognitive ability to recall info from the past (aka, long-term memory)
Procedural memory recall of info on how to perform a task such as knowing how to write or ride a bike
Semantic memory ability to remember the name of an object
Personal episodic memory recall of time related info about one’s self, such as where & if one ate breakfast
General knowledge example, remembering the name of the highest mountain in the world
Short-term memory the ability to recall info after a short time period
Long-term memory the ability to recall information for long periods of time without effort
Paraphasia language d/o in which a person hears & comprehends words but is unable to speak correctly; saying the wrong word, substituting a word that sounds alike, or using a word in the same category as the intended word
Anomia inability to name objects; person searches in vain for a word & says “thing-a-ma-jig” or just gives up
Circumlocution expressing an idea by talking around the intended word w/extensive description & elaboration
Hyperflexia overflexion of a limb
Paratonia involuntary resistance to passive movement of the extremities
Dysphagia loss of ability to chew & swallow
Executive function broad band of skills that allow an individual to engage in independent, self-directed behavior, i.e. Planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting, self-awareness, formulating goals, etc.
Disinhibition loss of inhibition, or cultural & social sense of self-restraint; it is seen instead of spontaneity in AD patients
Lability rapidly shifting or changing emotions; more common in vascular dementia
Hyperoality excessive overeating or developing a limiting food preference (ex. Banans & milk only); it’s a disinhibited behavior found in Frontal temporal Dementia (FTD)
Hypersexualtiy disinhibition in regard to sexual impulses; may consist of verbalizations or gestures; it’s a disinhibited behavior found in FTD
Bradykinesia slowness of all voluntary movement & speech; core feature of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)
Extrapyramidal symptoms involuntary movement, changes in muscle tone, & abnormal posture
Praxis skilled purposeful movements
What are the cognitive disorders most commonly seen by OTs? delirium & dementia
neuropathy disease of the nervous system; any disease or disorder of the nerves
neuropathology pathology of the nervous system; the scientific study of diseases of the nervous system; the branch of medicine that studies and treats the morphological and other features of nervous system disease
pathology Form of medical science concerned w/all aspects of disease, but w/special reference to the essential nature, causes, & development of abnormal conditions, as well as the structural & functional changes that result from the disease processes
cognition refers to the broad range of mental abilities that enable us to know about the world around us; abilities include memory, language, attention, perception, & reasoning
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired, but are functioning well & do not meet the criteria for dementia
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) Pick's disease/ complex; memory deficit is not the 1st SX; believed to include an overlapping of the following syndromes: primary progressive aphasia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive subnuclear palsy, & motor neuron disease; linked w/chromosome 17
syncope fainting; loss of Consciousness
Lewy Bodies microscopic spherical neuronal inclusion bodies within the cytoplasm of a cell
Dementia with Lewy Bodies often misdiagnosed as AD, delirium, or viewed as Parkinson's plus AD; LB's are found in the cortical & subcortical structures of the brain; shows a progressive decline of cognition, resulting in impaired social or occupational function
Created by: sheaton
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