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Endocrine Glands

Exam #1

QuestionAnswer
Homeostatis The tendency to maintain the constancy of the internal invironment.
Our cells are surrounded by? Which constitute? Extracellular Fluid, Internal environment
Negative Feedback System in which effectors causes a change that's opposite the initial disturbance (opposes)
Positive Feedback System in which the effectors causes a change that's in the same direction as the disturbance (reinforces)
What are the 2 characteristics of Positive Feedback It's rare in normal physiology but common in disease and it's always self limited
Examples of physiological variables are? B/P, body temp, plasma concentrations of various ions and metabolically important molecules like O2, CO2, glucose etc..
The key to maintain homeostasis is the presence? Regulatory Mechanism
The negative feedback control system involves the following components? A sensor, a controller, and one or more effectors
What is Gap Junction? The structure that allows the direct passage of smaller molecular weight substances from one cell to the next
The Nervous system... releases neurotransmitter from one cell to another and involves the propagation of action potential
The neurotransmitters that are release in the nervous system must diffuse across a space called? synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitter receptors can be found on? neurons, skeletal muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and gland cells
The nervous system operates on a timeframe of? Milliseconds (msec)
The endocrine system involves the release of signal molecules called? Into? hormones, bloodstream
What are target cells? Cells which have receptors that recognize a given hormone
The endocrine gland operates on a timeframe of ? slower tha NS, seconds to days
What is neuroendocrine? Neurotransmitter that are released into the bloodstream
What is Autocrine? (local) molecules that interacts on itself or a member of the same cell type
What is Paracrine? (local) target cells that have different cell types
Exocrine glands secrete into? which ends up draining to a? ducts, body surface
Some examples of the endocrine glands whose sole function is hormone productions are? Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal and adrenal glands
What is endocrinology? Branch of medicine which handles disorders of the endocrine glands
What is Half-life? Time that it takes for the body to reduce the concentration of hormone by 50%
What are 3 forms of hormone release/secretion? humerol stimuli, neural stimuli, hormonal stimuli
What is humerol stimuli? Concentration od something in the blood regulates hormone secretion
A decrease in blood Ca+ in humerol stimuli... increase PTH
An increase in blood Ca+ in humerol stimuli... decrease PTH
The humerol factor in humerol stimuli is? Blood Ca+ concentration
What is Catecholamine? Release from the adrenal medulla is controlled by sympathetic nerve stimulation
An example in which hormone A stimulates the secretion of hormone B which in turn inhibits the release of hormone A is called? negative feedback loop
Based on solubility, hormones can be divided into? lipid soluble, water soluble
This is all derived from arachidonic acid? eicosanoids
What are 2 examples of ecosanoids? prostaglandins, leuktrienes
Hormones can be classified as? amino- acid based hormones, steroid hormones, and eicosanoids (paracrine factors)
Lipid soluble hormones circulate bound to? carrier protein
All hormones interact with a protein called? receptors
Upon receptor binding, the hormone-receptor complex binds to? altering the rate of production of certain? DNA, mRNAs
Receptors for steroid hormones are found within the? nucleus
cAMP mediated hormone processes involve a receptor found on the? surface (plasma membrane)
The enzyme that is responsible for porduction of cAMP from ATPis called? adenylate cyclase
When cAMP is formed it activates an enzyme called? which carries out the chemical process called? protein kinase A, phosphorylation
What is neuro stimuli? In the nervous system that triggers secretion. Increase sympathetic supply to adrenal medulla which will cause increase in epinephrine
Hormonal stimuli.... Hormone 1 causes an increase in hormone 2
What is lipid soluble? Steroid hormones that derived from cholesterol (thyroid hormones)
What is water soluble? Peptide hormone made of amino acids.
What is eicosanoids? (prostagladins & leukotrienes) derived from arachidonic acids
How does water and lipid soluble circulate in blood? water- freely lipid- bonds to a carrier proteins
In water and lipid soluble, where are the receptors located within the target cell? water- cell membrane lipid- within the nucleus
How does activation involve in water/lipid soluble? water- second messenger lipid- altered transcription (DNA to mRNA)
What are the time frames of water/lipid soluble? water- fast (seconds to minutes) lipid- slow (hours to days)
Created by: jenjeta