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Physio Ch. 10

afferent division is for...and is located in the sensory reception...posterior spinal root
interneurons perform and are in the integration and CNS
efferent neurons are in the...and they perform... anterior spinal root...effector activation
somatic motor system goes CNS...skeletal muscle effector
somatic motor system has...with only... one synapse in PNS at the effector
somatic motor system is...and the neurotransmitter is excitatory...ACH nicotinic
afferent information input is...which collects for a desired movement
sensory input involves using proprioception
integration processes...and assesses...or develops... how do i want to change?...input...a specific intended movement
integration processing determines...and creates a.. necessary action...motor program
motor programs formulate the neural activity required for the action
efferent information is...through the... output..descending pathways
descending pathways do...and send... motor output...appropriate signals to appropriate areas
desired action involves a...which contain... motor neuron pool and associated muscles...motor units (how many to activate)
voluntary movement is the..involving the... conscious awareness of movement...what's and why moving
whats moving is...why moving is... physical awareness...purposeful movemen
involuntary movement has no conscious awareness (automatic)
reality of movements is that movement is a combo of voluntary and involuntary
combo of voluntary and invol means learned actions becomes automatic (walking) and reflexes can sometimes be consciously blocked or augmented
control hierarchy has 3 levels higher, middle and lower
higher level is in the..and does overall... CNS...organization of action
higher levels develop...and are located... a movement no specific location of CNS
middle level is in the...and it... CNS...formulates a motor program
motor programs organize...and coordinate... the specifics of a movement and collection of info from and actions
coordination of info and actions starts with the...and ends with using the initial body position...desired position ...agonists and antagonists
local level is in the...and it CNS AND PNS, receives, integrates and sends sensory information (instructions)
local control involves the brainstem or spinal cord
afferent sensory neurons send info to the...such as when you... CNS...balance on one leg
balancing on one leg involves pacinian corpuscles (lamellated) for deep pressure
balancing on one leg the... proprioceptors...joints
balancing on one leg uses...receptors intrafusal fiber stretch
balancing on one leg involves the...organ which tells you... golgi much the muscle is being stretched
interneurons are the...because they... communicating neurons...integrate info from afferent neurons and integrate info within the cns and send instructions to efferent neurons
efferent motor neurons take info cns...effectors
there is only a + sign at the muscle fibers because you can only inhibit the motor neuron, not the effector
stretch monitoring systems have two steps occuring together
muscle structure includes... extrafusal fibers, muscle spindle, tendon
extrafusal fibers do the contraction by developing tension
muscle spindles are...and are surrounded by a...with..inside them embedded in the extrafusal fibers...CT capsule...intrafusal fibers
intrafusal fibers are skeletal muscle cells w stretch receptor in middle of fiber
intrafusal fibers have stretch receptors inside them
the tendon has the...which contains.. golgi tendon organ...stretch receptors
golgi tendon organ has...for... sensory receptors...tension on tendon
reflex involves stimulus, receptor (afferent), integration, effector(efferent) and response
length monitoring systems have extrafusal and intrafusal fiber stretch, extrafusal contraction, alpha gamma coactivation and reciprocal innervation
extrafusal and intrafusal fiber stretch: stimulation of... intrafusal fiber stretch receptors
^ stretch receptor AP = greater stimulus
extrafusal fiber contraction involves...stimulation of... alpha neuron..extrafusal fibers
reduced stimulation of...because... intrafusal fiber stretch receptors...extrafusual fibers compact so stretch receptors must compact
reducted stimulation of intrafusal fiber stretch receptors = decreased stretch receptor AP
the problem with extrafusal fiber contraction is that you can't detect stretch
alpha-gamma coactivation: gamma neurons are activated which results in shortening by pulling out to pull stretch receptor = more signals to continue contracting
gamma neuron activation alpha neuron activation intrafusal fibers...concurrent
gamma neuron activation leads to intrafusal fiber contraction
what two steps are going on in stretch monitoring systems extrafusal fiber contraction and alpha gamma coactivation
reciprocal innervation is the stimulation of...and inhibition of... agonist...antagonist
why do we inhibit the antagonist? to release tension
tensino monitoring systems: extrafusal fiber contraction or stretch involves the stimulation of...which can either be... golgi tendon organ..passive or active
passive muscle stretch leads to ^ stretch receptor AP (just a little stimulation)
active muscle contraction = ^^ stretch receptor AP (more frequent signals)
reciprocal innervation in tension monitoring systems inhibits...and stimulates...why? you don't break the tendon
somatic motor reflexes effect excitatory or inhibitory
inhibitory somatic motor reflex effects the alpha motor neuron
somatic motor reflexes can either be monosynaptic or multisynaptic(association(inter)neurons)
complexity of a reflex depends on number of synapses
location of sensation and effect is either ipsilateral or contralateral
ipsilateral means...and is either... same side...mono or multisynaptic
contralateral means...and is... stimulus and effect are on opposite sides of the body...multisynaptic bec it requires interneuron
stretch reflex: knee jerk: what is stretched rectus femoris extrafusal and intrafusal fibers
stretch receptors the knee jerk spindles...intrafusal fiber stretch
in the knee jerk, sensory neurons s ynapses in...with... spinal cord...alpha motor neuron
alpha motor neurons go to...of extrafusal fibers...rectus femoris and synergistic muscles for stimulation...contract
reciprocal innervation of stretch reflex - sensory neuron...extrafusal fibers of... synapses in spinal cord with alpha motor neuron...hamstring muscle inhibited (knee flexors)
reflexes: withdrawal or...reflex uses...for... flexor...nicceptors...detection of pain
flexor reflex on side of injury is...and there is a stimulation of...and inhbition of... ipsilateral...knee flexor (agonist)...knee extensor (antagonist)
cross extensor reflex means the reflex is on the opposite leg for extension (contralateral)
cross extensor reflex stimulates...and inhibits... knee extensor...knee flexor
cerebral cortex has sensorimotor cortex and neural networks
sensorimotor cortex includes the somatosensory cortex, parietal lobe association cortex, primary motor cortex, premotor area, supplementary motor cortex
somatosensory cortex detects...from... sensory afferent info...all over body (presure, touch, warm cold etc)
somatosensory cortex is located on the postcentral gyrus
parietal lobe association cortex integrates multiple senses
tensino monitoring systems: extrafusal fiber contraction or stretch involves the stimulation of...which can either be... golgi tendon organ..passive or active
reciprocal innervation in tension monitoring systems inhibits...and stimulates...why? you don't break the tendon
somatic motor reflexes effect excitatory or inhibitory
primary motor cortex sends info to specific motor unit
primary motor cortex is...and is on the...and is made of the...and makes the... efferent...precentral gyrus...pyramidal cells (originate motor message)...somatotopic map
neural networks are like the...and provide... roads through brain for communication...interconnecteness among areas
subcortical and brainstem nuclei develop and are involved in... sequence of movements for action and parkinsons disease
parkinson is a malfunction of basal nuclei and activation of motor cortex
malfunction of basal nuclei and activation of motor cortex = imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory input to basal nuclei and thus to motor cortex (lose ability to balance)
parkinsons involves two types of esia's akinease(Loss or impairment of the power of voluntary movement) and bradykinesia (slowness of movement)
parkinsons defects movement by causing rigidity and muscle tremors at rest
treatments for parkinson include l-dopa (dopamine replacement), dopamine receptor agonists(activates receptors), dopamine enzyme inhibitors, electrical stimulation of underactive area, destruction of overactive areas
a controversial treatment for parkinsons is undifferentiated embryonic stem cells
cerebellum assesses...and controls...of movement which includes... sensory stimuli...coordination...fluid and accurate movement
cerebellum is involved in movement memories
cerebellar disease is also called...and causes... intention tremor...tremor during action, lack of coordination of movement, unstable posture and gait, difficulty learning new movements and modify movements
the motor cortex directs motor units
descending pathways include the corticospinal (lateral, anterior, corticobulbar) and brainstem pathways
descending pathways go from the CNS to PNS(muscle cells)
descending pathways they are controlled by the..and use what type of neurons efferent...somatic system...upper and lower motor neurons (alpha and gamma)
upper motor neurons are also called...and they synapse in three places pyramidal neurons...interneurons, alpha motor neurons (extrafusal fibers) and gamma motor neurons (intrafusal fibers) (last two are lower motor neurons)
overall effects of descending pathways on alpha motor neurons excitatoyr and inhibitory (at the muscle it is only excitatory)
descending pathways get feedback to brain via...which uses...and asks the question... synapse with afferent system...stretch and proprioceptors...did you accomplish the movement?
corticospinal pathways control...and are also called conscious movement..pyramidal or direct tracts
motor pathways names = where they are in the spinal cord
corticospinal cord goes use what neurons cortex..spinal cord...effector...upper and lower motor neurons(alpha) controlled by corticospinal pathways skeletal muscles
corticospinal pathways can either...or... converge (sensorimotor cortex neurons converge to coordinate movement)..diverge (corticospinal neurons diverge to motor neurons)
corticospinal pathways..which occurs in the..and means... decussate...CNS...left side to right side and right side to left side
lateral corticospinal tracts account for...decussate in the...and affect the... 80-90% of pyramidal fibers...medulla...limbs, hands feet
anterior corticospinal tract account for...decussate at tthe...and affect the... 10-20% of pyramidal fibers...level of synapse in spinal cord...axial trunk skeletal muscles
anterior corticospinal tract would be responsible for how to hoola hoop
corticobulbar tracts don't go..but they do go all the way down spinal cord...motor cortex...brainstem and cranial nerves
corticobulbar tracts decussation is...and this tract controls... variable (some are bilateral meaning that some fibers from same tract will decussate but other wont)...skeletal muscles in the head (eyes, tongue, chewing, face, speech, neck)
corticospinal pathway damage can result in spastic or flaccid paralysis
spastic paralysis means intact, and you will see the... spinal cord reflex..babinski sign (indicator of damage to pyramidal cells)
spastic paralysis affects the...which indicates.. upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex...pyarmidal cell damage
spinal cord lesions of spastic paralysis: lateral corticospinal tract: motor damage is...and lesion is... ipsilateral relative to lesion...contralateral relative to neuron cell body
anterior corticospinal tract damage:...contralateral relative to lesion and ipsilateral relative to neuron cell body damage...lesion
flaccid paralysis damage to the...and the lesion is... specific muscle paralysis and atrophy...lower motor neurons...ipsilateral to the effect
brainstem pathway is an...and goes from... extrapyramidal tract...brainstem to spinal cord to effector
brainstem pathway affects the...through.. muscles of the trunk (balance, walking, posture)...unconscious or automatic control
brainstem pathways, most...which means...and which side of the brain controls movement in your right external oblique muscles? do not exhibit decussaion...left to left, right to right...right
pathway overlap and complement: corticospinal and brainstem pathways overlap in function
corticospinal pathway does most fine/detailed movement and voluntary movement
brainstem pathway does most gross movements of balance, posture and orienting the body relative to stimulus and also most involutnary movemnts of tonus, posture and balance
muscle tone is defined as resistance to passive movement (stretch)
hypertonia is an...which results in... increase in tone...rigidity, spasms, cramps, spasticity after stretching
hypertonia increases...which = alpha motor neuorn activity...increase skeletal muscle activity
hypertonia inhibits...which results in... descending patwhway...colstridium tetani (block neurotransmitter relase to inhibitory neurons)
hyoptonia is a lack of...and results in... instruction to alpha motor neurons...decrease tone (flaccid muscles)
hypotonia decreases...and causes... alpha motor neuron activity...neuromuscular unction disorders (ach deficit, ion imbalance etc)
hyoptonia causes disorders of muscle itself (muscuclar dystrophy)
posture and balance depend on coordination of systemsand postural reflexes (crossed-extensor reflex)
coordination of systems includes which systems vision, vestibular apparatus(sensory organ of balance), somatic receptors (proprioceptors and touch/pressure)
primary motor cortex is located on the...and contains the precentral gyrus...pyramidal cells and somatopic map
the pyramidal cells is where...originates motor message
somatosensory corte and parietal lobe association cortex afferent..primary motor cortex..efferent
Created by: handrzej



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