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Physio Ch 9 part 2

smooth muscle structure includes diagonal chains and dense bodies
diagonal of...and are...meaning there are no... actin and myosin...unstriated..sarcomeres
dense bodies are the actin and myosin
actin has...but doesn't have... tropomyosin...troponin
tension for smooth muscle has a...compared to skeletal wider range of tension generating length
in smooth muscles, stretch can in the... still produce maximal force...stomach when food stretches the stomach it is still able to contract to digest food
types of smooth muscle include multi and single unit
multi unit means there are... multiple innervations of neurons to smooth muscle
single unit means there is a...and all single innervation (one neuron to stimulate all cells)...cells form one unit
single units...and are connected via... contract as a single junctions which means electrical conduction
smooth muscle is innervated by the autonomic system (symp and para depending on the muscle)
smooth muscles contain axons and myofibers
axons are...containing nerve fibers...varicosities with synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters
the myofibers of smooth muscle do not have motor end plates
type of smooth muscle stimuli can be excitatory or inhibitory
excitatory stimuli open which leads to... voltage gated ca channels...depolarization
ca in smooth muscles causes two things APs and release of neurotransmitters
inhibitory stimuli cause...or... stable resting potential...hyperpolarized cell
single unit is activated by...which cause... pacemaker cells...pacemaker potential
pacemaker potentials replace...and innitiate... graded potentials...depolarization to threshold
pacemaker cells have slow waves
single units are connected by....have what kind of activity...and whaqt kind of innervation.... gap junctions...synchronus(electrical are faster)...autonomic
single units have well as from...which means they are not stimulation by stretch...hormones...just neurally driven
multi unit smooth muscles operate more like...and well as what type of innervation skeletal...individual neural stimulation...autonomic innervation
mosst common type of muscle is a combination of single and muli units
smooth muscle membranes haveno...but they do have... t tubules...voltage gated ca channels for depolarization
voltage gated ca channels change membrane potential as ca goes into the cell
stimulus for smooth muslce membrane may be excitatory, inhibitory or both
types of stimuli for smooth muscle include neurotransmitters (general and common), hormonal, other chemicals or extracellular conditions like pH in the GI tract), stretch and pacemaker cells
pacemaker cells produce pacemaker potentials which occur because of leak channels where + ions go in until threshold is met = automatic threshold
pacemaker potentials cause contraction without external stimulation (outside of that cell - - - neural)
pacemaker cells' slow waves do not mean an...will occur AP
slow waves are for ion change
slow waves have a..ion flux across membrane in... regular..both directions
slow waves need additional excitatory stimulus in order to cause AP
smooth muscle excitation-contraction coupling goes from excitation to muscle contraction
excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) contains a...which is the activity... latent period...between stimulation and cross bridge cycling
latent period involves...which comes from... ca going into the cell...extracellular (interstitial fluid) and intracellular (sarcoplasmic retic)
extracellular ca sources have the.. most ca, voltage gated CA channels and ligan gated ca channels
the ligand gated ca channels augment the postive charge inside the cell
intracellular ca sources are less developed than skeletal muscles and only some ca is here
muscle contraction involves cross bridge cycling and latch state
muscle relaxation involves ca sequestering
thin filaments of smooth muscle has...but not... actin...troponin
what takes place of troponin? calmodulin
calmodulin binds...and also binds and activates... ca...cytostolic myosin light chain kinase
myosin light chain kinase is an enzyme for binding phosphate to myosin
myosin contains...which cause myosin light chain kinase...phosphorylation of myosin light chains
smooth muscle cross bridge activation mechanisms ca influx activates calmodulin which binds to ca and activates myosin light chain kinase which allows you to phosphorylate myosin light chain to change orientation on myosin head
after phosphyrlation of myosin light chain changes shape on myosin head... myosin head is in position to form cross bridges
cross bridge cycling only requires...and step three keeps...meaning you dont need.. atp for the power stroke...myosin in correct orientation...second atp action
lastly in smooth muscle cross bridge cycling, myosin light chain phosphatase dephosphorylates myosin for relaxation
dephosphorylating myosin means the head is not in the right position
smooth muscle relaxation invoplves the...and.... ca ccountertransport activity
smooth muscle relaxation what is greater than what myosin light chain phosphatase activity > myosin light chain kinase activity
enzymes are constantly working so it is a matter of balance between kinase and phosphatase
during relaxation the myosin head...and no... shifts away from actin...cross bridge formation
latch state of relaxation... holds contraction without expending more atp
latch state the myosin may be...but still... dephosphorylated...attached to actin
latch state maintains...there is no..., low...and... tension (continuous contraction)...shortening of myofiber...atp use...long, slow contractions w/o fatigue
cardiac muscle cell structure is...which contains... striated...sarcomeres, t tubules, ca storing sarcoplasmic reticulum
cardiac muscle is...which...and contains... intercalated...holds cells together...desmosomes
desmosomes are proteins that extend between two cells
cardiac muscle cells are connected via...and they...which allows for... gap junctions...branch...multidirectional squeezing
cardiac muscle is stimulated...pacemaker cells
nervous system only influences, it does not cause stimulation of cardiac muscles
neural control of smooth muscle by the sympathetic division innervates entire heart to make it pump harder and faster
parasymp control of cardiac muscle involves which nerve and what does parasymp do vagus, cranial X...innervates primarily the atria so it only effects heart rate (slower)
cardiac action potentials involves muscle action potentials to make the contraction
cardiac action potentials also involves...which initiates... pacemaker potentials...the heartbeat
pacemaker potentials in cardiacmuscle send signals to cells to generate APs in cells
excitation-contraction coupling involves turning electrical activity to mechanical energy
cardiac muscle has a...which is the... refractory period...inability of cardiac muscle contractions to produce fused tetanus
if fused tetanus could occur in cardiac muscle then the heart could not re-fill with blood bec no relaxation occurs
cardiac muscle has no latch state
cardiac muscle cell AP is also called ventricular action potential
cardiac APs look...and are initiated by... different than neuron or skeletal muscle APs...pacemaker cells
resting potential of cardiac muscle is...and depolarization occurs via... -90 voltage gated channels opening and most k leak channels closed
plateau phase is the...where delay voltage gated channels are inactive
plateau phase involves l-type voltage gated ca2+ channels open
open l type voltage gated ca2+ channels in and... ca2+ =... modified DHP receptors...follows...k out
repolarization of cardiac muscle means l type voltage gated ca2+ channels...and voltage gated... close...k channels open
pacemaker potential of cardiac muscle are called cardiac conduction system APs
pacemaker potentials look...and are... different than neuron APs...self initiated
pacemaker potentials are linked to other cells through gap junctions
cardiac muscle fiber AP involves pacemaker and conductino fiber stimulation
latent period of cardiac muscle contraction cytostolic ca opens sarcoplasmic retic, ca released, ca binds to troponin, tropomyosin is shifted
tropomyosin shift causes...which causes... cross bridge cycling...muscle contraction
muscle relaxation involves pumping ca out and sequestering it
cardiacc muscle tension development has a...AP because of the... longer...plateau phase
cardiac muscle tension development has a...refractory period involving... longer absolute...plateau phase and longer depolarization with no tetanus
cardiac muscle tension development has...tension because of longer...plateau phase and longer depolarization
cardiac muscle must be partly relaxed to re-stimulate
Created by: handrzej



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