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Hematology 1-6 rev

New test based on the Test 1 review.

What is OSHA? Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What are universal precautions? The treating of all human blood, body fluids, and tissues as if they were infectious.
What does PPE stand for? Personal protective equipment.
Name some examples of PPEs. Gloves, lab coats, close-toed shoes
What is HPV? Hepatitis B vaccine.
What are some safety practices required by OSHA? No eating or drinking in the lab. Wash hands. No mouth pipetting. Throw sharp objects in the sharps container. Wear protective clothing.
What are some housekeeping procedures? Wash hands, clean work area, good hygiene.
What is the ratio of bleach in a cleanser when making a mixture? 1:9, or 10% bleach
What does MSDS stand for? Material Safety Data Sheet
What does RACE stand for? Rescue Alarm Close Extinguish
What are the different fire extinguishers? A (A for ash) solid combustibles B (B for barrel) flammable liquids and gases C (C for current) electrical equipment D (D for dents) combustible metals K (K for kitchen) oils and fats
What do you do if you get punctured? Notify your superior (doctor, teacher, or manager)
What is a biohazard? Biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
How do you control infection? Practice good hygiene Wear gloves, but don't take them out of the lab Wear a lab coat, but don't take it out of the lab Wash hands
What is whole blood? Whole blood is made of erythrocytes (RBCs) leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets. Whole blood has not been processed.
What is in plasma? unclotted blood and fibrinogen
What is different between plasma and serum? Plasma is unclotted and has fibrinogen. Serum is clotted and has no fibrinogen.
What do you add to blood to prevent clotting? An anticoagulant such as EDTA.
What are examples of anticoagulants? That use calcium binding: EDTA, sodium citrate, potassium/ammonium oxalate That use thrombin inhibition: Heparin, sodium, ammonium, lithium
Describe Lavender evac tubes. They use EDTA as an anticoagulant. They are used in hematology.
Describe light blue evac tubes. They use sodium citrate as an a.c. are are used in coagulation testing.
Describe gray evac tubes. They use flouride and are used in glucose assays.
Describe yellow evac tubes. They use SST and are used in chemistry and for blood cultures.
Describe red evac tubes. They are called serum tubes. They have no additives and are used in chemistry.
What is the most commonly recommended blood draw order? Yellow, light blue, orange, red, green, blue-grey, lavender, grey.
When and why do you invert a blood draw? You invert it to gently mix the contents without causing hemolysis. This is done when the tube has additives.
What does evacuated tube mean? The tube has air evacuated from it so there is a vacuum inside.
What does SST stand for? Serum separator tube
Describe a hemolyzed specimen. It is pink-red in color due to hemolysis.
Describe an icteric specimen. It will be dark yellow due to jaundice/increased bilirubin.
Describe a lipemic specimen. It will be milky-yellow due to increased lipids (fats).
What do you need in order to perform a venipuncture? Evacuated tubes, needles, needle holders, syringes or butterfly needles, tourniquet, solution for skin prep.
Which is smaller; 23 gauge or 21 gauge needles? 23
Describe the parts of a needle. Point, bevel, shaft, hub, stopper, sheath.
What is a bevel? The angled opening on the tip of a needle through which blood is drawn.
Which way should it be facing when drawing blood? Up.
Explain the purpose of a tourniquet. It makes veins bulge and easier to find. It cuts off venous flow without impairing arterial flow. It also reduces the risk of bruising.
How long can you leave a tourniquet on? 1 minute.
List all of the steps when performing a venipuncture. 1. ID the patient. 2. Reassure the patient. 3. Explain the phlebotomy procedure. 4. Do not explain the test being performed on their blood. 5. Do not tell them it won't hurt.
What is the most important step when drawing blood? ID the patient.
How do you position a patient? Have them sit or lie down. Have them extend their arm. You may place a pillow under their elbow.
What are some complications that may occur during a blood draw? Hemolysis, seizure, fainting, vomiting, allergies, tremors, unable to obtain a specimen, mastectomy, scarred tissue.
What are the veins that are used? Cephalic, median cubital, basilic.
What is palpation? Feeling for a vein by touch. Do not rub, just push for vein.
What do you do if there's an IV and why? You try to use the other arm without an IV, or draw from below the IV. Note an IV draw on requisition. The IV will contaminate the blood draw with IV fluid if you draw above the IV.
How do you cleanse the puncture site? You use 70% solution of isopropyl alchohol and rub in a circular motion, making ever larger circles. Let it dry.
When are butterfly needles used? On children or others with small veins, or during an IV infusion.
When do you label the blood specimen? Before you leave the room the patient is in.
What goes on the label? Patient name, ID number, your initials, the date and time of collection, any other notes.
What happens if you stick the needle through the vein or nick the top? A bruise (hematoma) may result.
What are the rules for applying pressure? Capable patients can apply pressure Arm is raised and outstretched Do not bend the elbow Collector must apply pressure if necessary
Where do you put used needles? Sharps container
What should you NOT do with used needles? Throw them in the regular trash. Do not cut, bend, or reuse.
Why are specimens rejected? Test order ID and requisition ID do not match. The tube is unlabeled or incorrectly labeled. Hemolysis. Specimen collected at wrong time. Wrong tube. Specimen clotted, but whole blood required. Specimen contaminated with IV fluid. Specimen is lipem
What happens when the blood is clotted after centrufigation? The blood is separated into plasma, buffy coat, and RBCs.
Why is patient confidentiality important? Patients are guaranteed privacy by Hipaa. Violating confidentiality can get the facility fined and cost you your job.
What are the optical parts of a microscope? Oculars, objectives.
What is a binocular eyepiece? An eyepiece with 2 oculars.
What are the objective powers of our microscope? 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x
What does parfocal mean? A parfocal lens is a lens that stays in focus when magnification/focal length is changed.
What's an Achromatic lens? An achromatic objective corrects for color and has a flat field across the central 65% of the image. It’s usually a pair of lenses
What's a planachromatic lens? A plan (or planar) objective corrects better for color and spherical aberration than either the semi-plan or the achromatic objective. Plan objectives have a flat field about the center 95% of the image.
What is the purpose of a condenser? The purpose of the condenser lens is to focus the light onto the specimen.
What is the purpose of immersion oil? It makes the image you see through the microscope look sharper.
What are the different types of microscopes? Light field, dark-field, phase-contrast
What are each used for? Light field-blood and other biological specimens that allow light to pass through them Dark-field-specimens in a liquid or a dark background Phase contrast-live organisms
What is quality assurance? The process required to ensure that results will be accurate and trustworthy.
What is quality control? Control of the testing process to ensure that the test results meet the quality needs
Define accuracy. The closeness of the test value to the true result.
Define precision. When replicate analyses of a sample agree with each other- reproducibility. Indicator of random error. Expressed as CV.
Define control. A substance of biological nature that’s physical and chemical composition closely resembles the unknown test specimen.
What is a calibrator? A calibrator is a preserved human or artificial cell suspension whose parameters have been determined by multiple reference labs.
What is a delta check? Comparing the results from the analysis of a sample with the result from the previous sample for the same analyte.
What is a reference interval? Range of values for an analyte in healthy persons.
What is a mean and how do you calculate it? A mean is the average value of a sample or set of values. You calculate it by adding up all the numbers you want to average, then you divide the total by the number of figures you added up.
What is a standard deviation and how do you calculate it? An SD shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (the mean). It is the square root of its variance.
What is diagnostic sensitivity and specificity? Diagnostic sensitivity: Sensitivity relates to the test's ability to identify positive results. Diagnostic specificity: Specificity relates to the ability of the test to identify negative results.
What are errors? (2) Systematic and random.
What is moving averages? ??????
What is a shift? When the control values suddenly move above or below the mean on a consistent basis over six days.
What is a trend? When the control values move away from the mean in an ever increasing or decreasing way.
What is external quality control? Quality controls put in place by an outside source.
The 3 basic parts of a cell are? Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm
The 3 basic functions of a cell are? 1. Restricts and facilitates the interchanges of substances with the environment. 2. Detect hormonal signals facilitating the cell to cell recognition. 3. Supports the blood groups, histocompatibility loci and receptors that provide for cellular identit
Another way of summarizing the 3 functions? Metabolism reproduction protein synthesis
What does semipermeable membrane mean? The membrane allows some things to pass through it and restricts others.
What are membrane proteins and carbohydrates and what do they do? A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to the membrane of a cell or an organelle. Carbs provide energy to cells and the body.
What is a nucleus made of? Chromatin Nuclear envelope Nucleoli
What is the function of the nucleus? Control center of the cell Controls cells reactions and reproduction
List the 8 cytoplasmic orangelles, their function, their composition? Golgi Complex Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Mitochondria Lysosomes Microfilaments Microtubules Centrioles
Created by: IsaacJ