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QuestionAnswer
marketing strategy a plan to guide the long-term use of a firm's resources based on its existing and projected internal capabilities and on projected changes in the external environment
marketing an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its shareholders
marketing concept a business philosophy based on consumer orientation, goal orientation, and systems orientation
consumer orientation the identification of and focus on the people or firms most likely to buy a product and the production of a good or service that will meet their needs most effectively
goal orientation a focus on the accomplishment of corporate goals; a limit set on consumer orientation
systems orientation the creation of systems to monitor the external environment and deliver the desired marketing mix to the target market
marketing mix the unique blend of product/service, pricing, promotion, and distribution strategies designed to meet the needs of a specific target market
marketing research the planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to management
descriptive function the gathering and presentation of statements of fact
diagnostic function the explanation of data or actions
predictive function specification of how to use descriptive and diagnostic research to predict the results of a planned marketing decision
return on quality management objective based on the principles that (1) the quality being delivered is at a level desired by the target market and (2) that level of quality must have a positive impact on profitability
applied research research aimed at solving a specific pragmatic problem = better understanding of the marketplace, determination of why a strategy or tactic failed, or reduction of uncertainty in management decision making
basic, or pure, research research aimed at expanding the frontiers of knowledge rather than solving a specific, pragmatic problem
programmatic research research conducted to develop marketing options through market segmentation, market opportunity analyses, or consumer attitude and product usage studies
selective research research used to test decision alternatives
evaluative research research done to assess program performance
opportunity identification using marketing research to find and evaluate new opportunities
situation analysis studying the decision-making environment within which the marketing research will take place
exploratory research preliminary research conducted to increase understanding of a concept, to clarify the exact nature of the problem to be solved, or to identify important variables to be studied
pilot studies surveys using a limited number of respondents and often employing less rigorous sampling techniques than are employed in large, quantitative studies
experience surveys discussions with knowledgeable individuals, both inside and outside the organization, who may provide insights into the problem
case analysis reviewing information from situations that are similar to the current one
marketing research problem a statement specifying the type of information needed by the decision maker to help solve the management decision problem and how that information can be obtained efficiently and effectively
marketing research objective a goal statement, defining the specific information needed to solve the marketing research problem
management decision problem a statement specifying the type of managerial action required to solve the problem
hypothesis a conjectural statement about a relationship between two or more variables that can be tested with empirical data
research design the plan to be followed to answer the marketing research objectives
descriptive studies research studies that answer the questions who, what, when, where, and how
variable a symbol or concept that can assume any one of a set of values
causal studies research studies that examine whether the value of one variable causes or determines the value of another variable
dependent variable a symbol or concept expected to be explained or influenced by the independent variable
independent variable a symbol or concept over which the researcher has some control and that is hypothesized to cause or influence the dependent variable
temporal sequence an appropriate causal order of events
concomitant variation the degree to which a presumed cause and a presumed effect occur or vary together
spurious association a relationship between a presumed cause and a presumed effect that occurs as a result of an unexamined variable or set of variables
survey research research in which an interviewer (except in mail and internet surveys) interacts with respondents to obtain facts, opinions, and attitudes
observation research typically, descriptive research that monitors respondents' actions without direct interaction
experiments research to measure causality, in which the researcher changes one or more independent variables and observes the effect of the changes on the dependent variable
probability sample a subset of a population where every element in the population has a known nonzero chance of being selected
nonprobability sample a subset of a population in which the chances of selection for the various elements in the population are unknown
research request an internal document used by large organizations that describes a potential research project, its benefits to the organization, and estimated costs; it must be formally approved before a research project can begin
request for proposal(RFP) a solicitation sent to marketing research suppliers inviting them to submit a formal proposal, including a bid
research proposal a document developed, usually in response to an RFP, that states the research objectives, research design, time line, and cost
secondary data data that have been previously gathered
primary data new data gathered to help solve the problem under investigation
internal database a collection of related information developed from data within the organization
database marketing marketing that relies on the creation of a large computerized file of customers' and potential customers' profiles and purchase patterns to create a targeted marketing mix
neural network a computer program that mimics the processes of the human brain and thus is capable of learning from examples to find patterns in data
data mining the use of statistical and other advanced software to discover nonobvious patterns hidden in a database
marketing research aggregator a company that acquires, catalogs, reformats, segments, and resells reports already published by large and small marketing research firms
geographic information system(GIS) provides both a means of maintaining geographic databases and a tool capable of complex spatial analysis to provide information for a decision support system
decision support system(DSS) an interactive, personalized information management system, designed to be initiated and controlled by individual decision makers
qualitative research research findings that are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis
quantitative research research that uses mathematical analysis
focus group group of 8 to 12 participants who are led by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on one particular topic or concept
group dynamics interaction among people in a group
focus group facility research facility consisting of a conference room or living room setting and a separate observation room with a one-way mirror or live audio-visual feed
focus group moderator person hired by the client to lead the focus group; this person should have a background in psychology or sociology or, at least, marketing
discussion guide written outline of topics to be covered during a focus group discussion
instant analysis moderator debriefing, offering a forum for brainstorming by the moderator and client observers
individual depth interviews(IDI) one-on-one interviews that probe and elicit detailed answers to questions, often using nondirective techniques to uncover hidden motivations
hermeneutic research research that focuses on interpretation through conversations
Delphi Method rounds of individual data collection from knowledgeable people. Results are summarized and returned to the participants for further refinement
projective test technique for tapping respondents' deepest feelings by having them project those feelings into an unstructured situation
word association test projective test in which the interviewer says a word and the respondent must mention the first thing that comes to mind
analogies comparison of two items based on similarities
personification drawing a comparison between a product and a person
sentence and story completion tests projective tests in which respondents complete sentences or stories in their own words
cartoon test projective test in which the respondent fills in the dialogue of one of two characters in a cartoon
photo sort projective technique in which a respondent sorts photos of different types of people, indentifying those people who she or he feels would use the specified product or service
consumer drawings projective technique in which respondents draw what they are feeling or how they perceive an object
storytelling projective technique in which respondents are required to tell stories about their experiences, with a company or product, for example; also known as the metaphor technique
third-person technique a projective technique in which the interviewer learns about respondents' feelings by asking them to answer for a third party, such as "your neighbor" or "most people"
random error, random sampling error error that results from chance variation
chance variation difference between the sample value and the true value of the population mean
systematic error, bias error that results from problems or flaws in the execution of the research design; sometimes called nonsampling error
sample design error systematic error that results from an error in the sample design or sampling procedures
sampling frame list of population elements or members from which units to be sampled are selected
frame error error resulting from an inaccurate or incomplete sampling frame
population specification error error that results from incorrectly defining the population or universe from which a sample is chosen
selection error error that results from incomplete or improper sample selection procedures or not following appropriate procedures
measurement error systematic error that results from a variation between the information being sought and what is actually obtained by the measurement process
surrogate information error error that results from a discrepancy between the information needed to solve a problem and that sought by the researcher
interviewer error, interviewer bias error that results from the interviewer's influencing-- consciously or unconsciously-- the respondent
measurement instrument bias error that results from the design of the questionnaire or measurement instrument; also known as questionnaire bias
processing error error that results from the incorrect transfer of information from a survey document to a computer
nonresponse bias error that results from a systematic difference between those who do and those who do not respond to a measurement instrument
refusal rate percentage of persons contacted who refused to participate in a survey
response bias error that results from the tendency of people to answer a question incorrectly through either deliberate falsification or unconscious misrepresentation
door-to-door interviews interviews conducted face-to-face with consumers in their homes
executive interviews industrial equivalent of door-to-door interviews
mall-intercept interviews interviews conducted by intercepting mall shoppers (or shoppers in other high-traffic locations) and interviewing them face-to-face
central-location telephone interviews interviews conducted by calling respondents from a centrally located marketing research facility
computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) central-location telephone interviews in which interviewers enter respondents' answers directly into a computer
self-administered questionnaires questionnaires filled out by respondents with no interviewer present
ad hoc mail surveys questionnaires sent to selected names and addresses without prior contact by the researcher; sometimes called one-shot mail surveys
mail panels precontacted and prescreened participants who are periodically sent questionnaires
longitudinal study study in which the same respondents are resampled over time
newsgroup an internet site where people can read and post messages devoted to a specific topic
cookie a text file placed on a user's computer in order to indentify the user when she or he revisits the website
online focus groups focus groups conducted via the internet
web community carefully selected group of consumers who agree to participate in an ongoing dialogue with a corporation
unrestricted internet sample self-selected sample group consisting of anyone who wishes to complete an internet survey
commercial online panel group of individuals who have agreed to receive invitations to do online surveys from a particular panel company. Company charges organizations doing surveys for access to the panel.
open online panel recruitment any person with internet access can self-select to be in a research panel
closed online panel recruitment inviting only pre-validated individuals or those with shared known characteristics to enroll in a research panel
Interactive Marketing Research Organization (IMRO) organization dedicated to the development, dissemination, and implementation of interactive marketing research concepts, practice, and information
observation research systematic process of recording patterns of occurrences or behaviors without normally communicating with the people involved
open observation process of monitoring people who know they are being watched
disguised observation process of monitoring people who do not know they are being watched
garbologists researchers who sort through people's garbage to analyze household consumption patterns
ethnographic research study of human behavior in its natural context, involving observation of behavior and physical setting
mystery shoppers people who pose as consumers and shop at a company's own stores or those of its competitors to collect data about customer-employee interactions and to gather observational data; they may also compare prices, displays, and the like
one-way mirror observation practice of watching behaviors or activities from behind a one-way mirror
audit examination and verification of the sales of a product
traffic counters machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway
electroencephalograph (EEG) machine that measures electrical pulses on the scalp and generates a record of electrical activity in the brain
galvanic skin response (GSR) change in the electric resistance of the skin associated with activation responses; also called electrodermal response
People Reader machine that simultaneously records the respondent's reading material and eye reactions
portable people meter device worn by people that measures the radio and TV programming to which the participant was exposed during the day
BehaviorScan scanner-based research system that can manipulate the marketing mix for household panels in geographically dispersed markets and then electronically track consumer purchases
InfoScan Custom Store Tracking scanner-based data system that collects information on consumer packaged goods
predictive customer intelligence modeling surfing patterns along with demographic and psychographic data to predict consumer behavior
Created by: srgrant