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Hematology 1-6

For upcoming test at Delaware Tech Owens Campus in Hematology

What is the definition of universal precautions? Treating all human blood, body fluids, and tissues as if they were infectious.
What are 5 safety practices required by OSHA? Handwashing. No eating, drinking, smoking in the lab. No mouth pipetting. Sharp objects go in the sharps container. Wear protective clothing.
What are 4 hazards of being an MLT? Fire Hazards Chemical Hazards Electrical Hazards Needle Punctures
What does PPE stand for? Personal protective equipment
What does HPV stand for? Hepatitis B Vaccine
When creating your own cleaning solution for counter-tops, what percentage of bleach is required in the solution? 10% (or 1 part bleach per ten parts water)
What does MSDS stand for? Material Safety Data Sheet
What are the 4 steps to take in case of a fire? (HINT: RACE) Rescue Alarm Close Extinguish RACE
What are 5 things to remember to do to prevent an infection? (Infection control?) Personal health and hygiene Wear gloves Handwashing Remove lab coats when leaving the lab Remove gloves when leaving the lab
What are the 3 basic components of whole blood? Erythrocytes Leukocytes Platelets
What is the difference between blood plasma and blood serum? Blood plasma contains fibrinogen and is unclotted. Blood serum has no fibrinogen and is clotted.
What are the 3 layers of blood that has been centrifuged? Plasma (on top) Buffy coat (thin middle layer) Red blood cells (red bottom layer)
What are RBCs? Red blood cells. Also called erythrocytes.
What are WBCs? White blood cells. Also called leukocytes.
What color are plasma and serum? Pale yellow
What is hemolysis? The rupturing of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the release their contents (hemoglobin) into surrounding fluid.
What color is a hemolyzed blood specimen? Pink-red.
What color is an icteric blood sample? Dark yellow.
What does an icteric blood sample have more of? Bilirubin
When a blood specimen is lipemic, that means it has more ___? Lipids (fats)
What does a lipemic blood specimen look like? Milky yellow
What 6 basic pieces of equipment are required when performing a venipuncture? Evacuated tubes Needles and holders – 22 or 21 gauge Tourniquet Syringes and butterflies Solutions for skin preparation – 70 % isopropyl or betadine
What are the 3 basic components of an evacuated tube design? Sterile needle A holder The evacuated tube
What are the 5 parts of an evacuated tube needle? (From top to bottom) Point Bevel Shaft Hub Stopper Sheath
What are the 4 parts of a needle adapter design? Needle Tube advancement mark Rubber sleeve Adapter itself
What are the 4 kinds of tourniquets? Flat latex strips Velcro/buckle closures Rubber tubing Blood pressure cuffs
What are 3 reasons for using a tourniquet when drawing blood? Assists in vein location (makes veins bulge) Impedes venous but not arterial blood Minimizes bruising
What are the 6 basic colors of blood tubes and what are they for? Lavender - EDTA (anticoagulant) - Hematology Light blue - Sodium citrate (coagulant) - coagulation Green - Heparin (anticoagulant) - Chemistry/hematology Gray - K oxalate - glucose assays Yellow - SST - Chemistry Red - has no additive - Che
What does SST stand for? Serum separator tube
Name 3 anticoagulants that work through the use calcium binding? EDTA Sodium citrate Potassium/ammonium oxalate
Name 3 anticoagulants that work through thrombin inhibition? Heparin, sodium, ammonium, lithium
What is the most important step when drawing blood from a patient? Identify the patient
Name 3 things you need to know about ID bands. Always compare the band with the requisition They must be worn by the patient Do not trust room and bed signs
Name the 4 steps in preparing a patient to have their blood drawn. Reassure the patient. Explain blood draw procedure. Do not explain the test! Do not say procedure is painless!
Name 4 conditions you must verify with the patient before performing the blood draw. Fasting Medications Activities Notice any unusual conditions FAMN (Famine)
When drawing blood, there are 3 things you can do to ensure the patient has been positioned comfortably and that the site of blood draw is well supported. What are they? Place pillow under arm Place fist under elbow Place arm at downward angle to prevent reflux
Name 3 things you can do to ensure the safety of the patient when drawing blood? Patient is sitting or lying down Remove objects from patient’s mouth Be alert for syncope (signs of fainting)
Name 5 things to keep close at hand when drawing blood from a patient. Antiseptic pads Gauze Bandage Needle disposal system Examination requisition form Extra tubes in case of loss of vacuum Attach needle to adapter
Name five steps in applying a tourniqet to a patient when drawing blood. Apply tourniqet for no more than 1 minute Apply tourniquet for site selection Release it for 2 minutes Reapply the tourniquet when ready to draw blood Release when blood flows
Three things to remember about selecting the site for a tourniquet are: Locate tourniquet 3 to 4 inches above site Avoid or cover arms with skin conditions Avoid arms on the side of a mastectomy
When drawing blood, the three veins to use in the antecubital (inner elbow) region are: Cephalic Vein Basilic Vein Median Cubital Vein
Three other alternative blood-draw sites to the inner elbow are: Wrist Hand Feet
When selecting the site for drawing blood, you can ask the patient to __. Make a fist. Do not allow them to pump their fist.
Why shouldn't the patient pump their fist when you are preparing to draw their blood? It causes hemoconcentration
What is hemoconcentration? A decrease in plasma volume due to an increase in the concentration of red blood cells in blood.
Name 6 things you should know about palpation. Feeling is more important than sight Probe with index finger, thumb has a pulse Push, don’t stroke Wear gloves to palpate Determine the size, depth, direction Remember that veins are spongy, tendons are rigid, arteries have a pulse
If you are experiencing difficulty in locating a vein: Check both arms Listen to patient’s suggestions of previously successful areas
Name 4 things to remember when drawing blood from a patient with an IV. Ideally use other arm than the one with the IV Avoid sites of previous IVs for 24–48 hours Note same arm collection on requisition Select site below infusion site, preferably use a different vein
Four things you should know about cleansing the site of a blood draw prior to venipuncture are: Apply 70% isopropyl alcohol using a circular motion Allow to air dry 30–60 seconds Avoid wiping off with gauze Failure to let alcohol dry causes a stinging sensation for patient Specimen hemolysis?
Name 4 things you should do when assembling your equipment. Perform while alcohol is drying Screw the stopper-puncturing end of needle into the adapter Insert first collection tube into the adapter Advance tube only to mark on adapter
Three steps to aid in anchoring the selected vein during venipuncture. Place thumb of nondominant hand 1–2 inches below site Place fingers on back of arm Do not anchor above and below site with thumb and index finger to avoid possible accidental self-puncture
Winged infusion sets are also known as __ Butterflies
Three reasons for using a butterfly for blood draw are: IV fluid infusion Very small adult veins Obtaining pediatric specimens
Three things to remember when inserting a needle are: Insert needle with bevel up Insert at 15–30 degree angle Resistance lessens when the needle enters the vein
How do you prevent needle movement? Brace the hand holding the adapter against the patient’s arm Gently twist tubes on and off the needle
What are three things to remember when removing the needle from a patient. Remove the tourniquet FIRST if still applied (Failure to remove can cause a hematoma) Patient may relax their fist Withdraw needle and apply pressure to gauze at the same time
Three things to remember about applying pressure to the site of a blood draw are: Capable patients can apply pressure Arm is raised and outstretched (Do not bend the elbow) Collector must apply pressure if necessary
Three things you should know about disposing of needles are: Do this as soon as possible Use conveniently located sharps container NEVER BEND, CUT, OR RECAP NEEDLE
Three things you should know about labeling a blood sample tube are: Label tube before leaving the patient (This lessens the chance of tubes being mixed up) Use a pen Verify information on preprinted labels
Four pieces of information that should be on the label of a blood sample are: Patient’s name and ID number Date and time of collection Collector’s initials Additional information, such as blood bank identification
Four things you should do while bandaging the patient's arm after a blood draw are: Check arm before bandaging Apply bandage over gauze for extra pressure Tell patient to avoid carrying heavy objects Tell patient to remove bandage within 1 hour
Seven complications that may arise when performing a venipuncture are: Hemolysis Burned or Scarred Tissue Seizures or Tremors Vomiting or Choking Allergies Mastectomy Patients Inability to Obtain Specimen
Name 6 physiological factors that could affect blood test results. Posture of patient when drawing blood Diurnal rhythm (sleep schedule) Exercise Stress Diet Smoking
Eight reasons a blood specimen might be rejected are: Test requisition and patient ID do not match Tube unlabeled or mislabeled Hemolyzed Specimen collected at the wrong time Specimen collect in the wrong tube Specimen clotted when whole blood was needed Specimen contaminated with IV fluid
Nine reasons for venipuncture complications are: Ecchymoses Syncope Hematoma Failure to Draw Petechiae Edema Obesity Intravenous Therapy Hemoconcentration
Name 3 kinds of skin puncture collection devices. Capillary Tubes Microcollection Tubes Unopettes
Created by: IsaacJ