Term | Definition |

Kinematics | branch of mechanics that deals with pure motion |

Kinetics | the branch of mechanics that deals with the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses |

Statics | branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium |

Dynamics | deals with the motion and equilibrium of systems under the actions of forces |

Three/Four Fundamental Forces | Gravity, Strong Nuclear, Electroweak (Weak Nuclear and Electromagnetic) |

Moment of Inertia | Resistance to rotational motion equal to the products of the mass and the square of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation of each particle in a body |

Torque | product of force and the lever arm; produces or tends to produce torsion or rotation |

Hooke's Law | Elastic force of a spring or similar object (F=-kx) |

Coulomb's Law | force between two charged particles are inversely squared |

Maxwell's Equations | Gauss's Laws, Faraday's Law, and Ampere's Law with Maxwell's correction |

Gauss's Law | relates electric charge to electric field |

Gauss's Law for magnetism | magnetic monopoles do not exist |

Faraday's Law | Induced EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit |

Ampere's Law | relates electric current to magnetic field produced; related to Biot-Savart Law |

Lorentz Force | force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields |

Kirchoff's Current Law | total current into a point on a circuit equals total current out |

Kirchoff's Voltage Law | total potential difference around a loop equals zero |

Lens'z Law | "induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose.. change causing it"; nature abhors changes in flux |

Joule's First Law | power produced (dissipated as heat) in a resistor |

Aerodynamics | study of the flow of gases |

Archimedes' Principle | bouyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced |

Pascal's Law | pressure change is conveyed uniformly throughout a fluid |

Bernoulli's Principle | relates kinetic and potential energies to pressure in fluid flows |

Navier-Stokes Equations | PDEs that determine motion of particles in a fluid (most of CFD) |

LASER | Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation; coherent beam of light |

Critical Angle | smallest angle for total internal refraction |

Fluorescence | emission of radiation by an object as a result of absorption of other radiation |

Photon | single unit of EM radiation; particle/wave duality |

Doppler Effect | apparent shift in frequency from moving source |

Fermat's Principle | between any two points, light takes the path that requires the least time |

Snell's Law (of Refraction) | index of refraction *sin of angle = constant |

Huygens(-Fresnel) Principle | wave fronts serve as sources of new wavelets (diffraction, etc.) |

Young's Double Slit | proved wave nature of light by demonstrating diffraction |

Planck Relation | relates frequency and energy by namesake constant (E=hv) |

Enthalpy (H) | internal energy plus pressure times volume |

Entropy (S) | a measure of disorder based on the number of equivalent micro states |

Helmholtz Free Energy | useful work attainable from a closed system |

Gibbs Free Energy | useful work attainable from an isothermal, isobaric system |

Carnot Engine | heat engine with cycle of isothermal expansion, isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expanstion, isothermal compression, and isentropic compression |

Fusion/Melting | transition from solid to liquid phase |

Freezing | transition from liquid to solid phase (opposite of melting) |

Sublimation | transition directly from solid to gas phase |

Deposition | transition directly from gas to solid phase (opposite of sublimation) |

Gasization | transition from liquid to gas phase |

Boiling | gasization originating with sub-surface bubbles |

Kelvin (SI Unit) | starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1 C |

Celsius (Centigrade) | defines with 0C as freezing point of water and 100C as boiling point |

Fahrenheit | water freezes at 32F, boils at 212F; zero is temp of ammonium chloride and ice |

Rankine | starts at absolute zero; increments equal to 1F |

Isobaric | constant pressure |

Isothermal | constant temperature |

Isochoric | constant volume |

Adiabatic | no heat flow |

0th Law of Thermodynamics | transitive property of thermal equilibrium |

1st Law of Thermodynamics | change in internal energy is sum of heat into the system and work done by the system |

2nd Law of Thermodynamics | Total entropy of any isolated system tends to increase over time |

3rd Law of Thermodynamics | processes cease and entropy goes to zero at absolute zero |

Carnot's Theorem/Rule | no engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a comparable Carnot Engine |

Joule's Second Law | internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature |

Fermions | elementary particles with half-integer spin (1/2 for all known fermions) |

Quarks | Type of fermion that are components of hadrons; only known fractional charge; interact via strong force; flavors include: up (+2/3), down(-1/3), top(+2/3), bottom(-2/3), charm(+2/3), and strange(-1/3) |

Leptons | have no strong interaction; electron(-1), electron neutrino(0), muon(-1), muon neutrino(0), tauon (-1), tauon neutrino(0) |

Bosons | elementary particles with integer spin; mediate fundamental forces |

photon | electromagnetic force; 0 charge; 1 spin; 0 mass |

W Boson | weak nuclear force; -1 charge; 1 spin |

Z Boson | weak nuclear foce; 0 charge; 1 spin |

Gluon | strong nuclear force; 0 charge; 1 spin |

Higgs Boson | endows particle masses via Higgs Mechanism; 0 charge; 0 spin |

Graviton | gravitational force; 0 charge; 2 spin |

Hadron | strongly interacting composite particles |

Baryons | composite fermions (ordinarty baryons have 3 valence quarks/antiquarks) |

Nucleons | fermionic constituents of atomic nuclei |

Protons | two up quarks, one down quark; +1 charge |

Neutrons | two down quarks, one up quark; 0 charge |

Hyperons | contain strange quarks; heavy and short-lived |

Mesons | composite bosons; ordinary have a quark and an antiquark in addition to bosons |

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle | specific pairs of physical properties cannot both be known to arbitrary precision; the better you know one, the worse you know the other |

Schrodinger Equation | describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes over time |

Pauli Exclusion Principle | no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state |

Dirac Equation | Matrix form of the Schrodinger Equation |

Stefan-Boltzmann Law | energy radiated per unit surface area of black bodies proportional to fourth power of temperature |

Planck's Law | describes the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature T |

Hubble's Law | velocity at which galaxies recede from the earth proportional to distance |

Special Relativity | physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference |

Time Dilation | variance of time observation between observers depending on the relative speeds of the observers' frames of reference |

twin paradox | twin flies in spaceship near light speed and returns to much older twin |

Lorentz Contraction | length measure by one observer smaller than tat from another |

Equivalence of mass and energy | energy content of mass at rest is mc*2 |

Lorentz Transformation | expression of spatial dimensions in those of a given reference frame based on the speed of that frame; involves Lorentz factor |

General Relativity | geometric theory of gravitation; describes gravity as a geometric property of spacetime |

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LeviD