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Ch. 10

Growth and Expansion

Industrial Revolution The change from an agricultural society to one based on industry which began in Great Britain and spread to the United States around 1800s
capitalism an economic system based on private property and free enterprise
capital money for investment
free enterprise the freedom of private business to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulations
technology The application of scientific discoveries to practical use
cotton gin a machine that removed seeds from cotton fiber
factory system a system that brings manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
lock in a canal, an enclosure with gates at each end used in raising or lowering boats as the pass from level to level
patent a document that gives an inventor the sole legal right to an invention for a period of time
interchangeable parts uniform pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces
turnpike a road that one must pay to use; the money is used to pay for the road (similar to today's toll roads)
canal an artificial waterway
American System policies devised by Henry Clay to stimulate the growth of industry that had three parts; (1) a protective tariff, (2) a program of internal improvements, (3) and a national bank
Eli Whitney An important inventor from this time; that invented the cotton gin
Erie Canal a 363 mile long artificial waterway connecting to the Hudson River with Lake Erie
James Monroe He became our 5th president, toured the nation and was an experienced/dignified politician
The Era of Good Feelings An era when there was very little political problems and there was a sense of national unity.
The Missouri Compromise Missouri became a slave state and Maine became a free state. The agreement banned slavery North of the 36 30 N parallel.
AdamsOnis Treaty The United States gained East Florida, and Spain also abandoned all claims to the West Florida
The Monroe Doctrine Created in 1823, this stated that the U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies but would oppose any new ones.
sectionalism loyalty to their region of the country rather than the country as a whole
state sovereignty the idea that states have autonomous power or the rights to govern themselves
Robert Fulton invented a powerful steam engine so that my steamboat could go upstream.
De Witt Clinton Governor of New York that was responsible for construction of Erie Canal, that would connect the Hudson River (in NY) to Lake Erie.
McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland was trying to tax the national bank; the Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law, and that the tax was interfering with the bank and its constitutional powers, making the tax unconstitutional.
Gibbons v. Ogden Established that states could not create laws that would interfere with congressional power over interstate commerce, and that the Constitution gives the federal government sole power to regulate interstate commerce (trade between the states)
Created by: MsFrankRL