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Anthropology Test 2

Cohen's Adaptive Strategies Foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, industrialism
Foraging Searching for food sources
Horiculture Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time
Agriculture Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor
Pastoralism Raising livestock
Foragers Hunters/gatherers
Symbiosis The pattern in which a particular society resides in an ecological habitat divided into different resources areas that become interdependent
Transhumance One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herd while the other part remains in home villages
Nomadism Herds must move to use pasture available in particular places in different seasons
Sedentism Practice of living in one place for a long time
Potlatch A festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of the North Pacific Coast of North America
Service's Four Kinds of Sociopolitical Organization Band, tribe, chiefdom, state
Band A small, kin-based group found among foragers
Tribe Form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture/pastoralism; rules are absent in tribes; no means of enforcing political decisions
Chiefdom Kin-based with different access to resources and a permanent political structure
State System that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power; independent, centrally organized political unit; government
Big Man Elaborate version of the village head, but has supporters in several villages; regulator of regional political organization
Head Man Multiple facets
Authority The formal, socially approved use of power (ex: by government officials)
Power The ability to exercise one's will over others - to do what one wants; the basis of political status
Ascribed Status Social status (ex: race, gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying
Achieved Status Social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription
Patrilocality Customary residence with the husband's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father's community
Matrilocality Customary residence with the wife's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their mother's community
Neolocality Postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
Incest Sexual relations with a close relative
Totems An animal, plant, or geographic feature associated with a specific social group, to which that totem is sacred or symbolically important
Extended Family Expanded household including three or more generations
Lineage Unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
Clan Unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
Nuclear Family A kinship group consisting of parents and children
Expanded Family Households Those that include nonnuclear relatives
Family of Procreation Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
Family of Orientation Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
Matrilineal Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
Head Man Head guy of sociopolitical group
Patrilineal Unilineal descent rule in which people join the father's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
Exogamy Mating or marriage outside one's kin group; a cultural universal
Endogamy Marriage between people of the same social group
Polygyny Variety of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife
Polyandry Variety of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband
Polygamy Marriage with three or more spouses, at the same time
Nayars of Southern India Female-headed households, husbands and wives did not live together
Kinship Blood relationship
Animism Belief in souls or doubles
Monotheism Worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being
Polytheism Belief in several deities who control aspects of nature
Evangelicalism Of or according to the teaching of the gospel or the Christian religion
Pentecostalism Of, relating to, or being any of various Christian religious congregations whose members seek to be filled with the Holy Spirit, in emulation of the Apostles at Pentecost
Created by: archergirl