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4th Grade Government

Congresses, Constitution, Branches of Government

TermDefinition
Articles of Confederation First form of national government, Congress was the only ruling body for this government, it was weak
Constitutional Convention 1787, 55 delegates met in Philadelphia, PA to discuss the changing of the national government
Congress Heads up the Legislative Branch, split into 2 houses (Senate and House of Representatives), makes laws
The Great Compromise The compromise made during the Constitutional Convention that split Congress into 2 houses (Senate and House of Representatives), came about out of the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan
James Madison Known as the "Father of the Constitution", arrived in Philadelphia two weeks early, took many notes on all issues, wrote the Bill of Rights
Legislative Branch made up of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives), makes the nation's laws, state senators work there
Executive Branch Headed up by the President, Vice President and the Cabinet, work from the White House, carries out the nation's laws and policies
Judicial Branch the Federal court system headed up by the Supreme Court, evaluates/interprets laws, Supreme Court Justices
Checks and Balances the system in which each branch is to "check" on the other two branches, so that no one branch gains too much power...in this they keep each other "balanced"
Checks and Balances example: the President (Executive) does not agree with a law passed by Congress (Legislative), he can then veto the law so that it never goes into effect ~ If the law passes, it hurts a citizens rights then the Supreme Court (Judicial) can rule it as illegal
"separation of power" and "checks and balances" 2 important principles that help make sure the government works correctly, with no one branch (or a person from that branch) becoming too powerful
the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation, provided a separation of powers that established the 3 branches of government
1st Amendment Freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly, the right to petition the government
Bill of Rights the 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
Benjamin Franklin Helped Congress listen and make compromises to create the Constitution. He was the oldest delegate.
Three Fifths Compromise 3 out of 5 slaves could be counted in a state's free population count for representation in Congress
Created by: cseckinger