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Vocab Chapter 9

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restriction enzyme   enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences  
gel electrophoresis   method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electric current to a gel  
restriction map   diagram that shows the lengths of fragments between restriction sites in the strand of DNA  
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)   method for increasing the quantity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes  
primer   short segment of DNA that initiates replication by DNA polymerase  
DNA fingerprint   unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level  
clone   genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism  
genetic engineering   process of changing an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits  
recombinant DNA   genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species  
plasmid   circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome  
transgenic   organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species  
gene knockout   genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being expressed  
genomics   study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species  
gene sequencing   process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes  
Human Genome Project   project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome  
bioinformatics   use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data  
DNA microarray   research tools used to study gene expression  
proteomics   study and comparison of all the proteins produced by an organism's genome  
genetic screening   process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorder  
gene therapy   procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into the patient's genome  


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