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Vocab Chapter 9

QuestionAnswer
restriction enzyme enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
gel electrophoresis method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electric current to a gel
restriction map diagram that shows the lengths of fragments between restriction sites in the strand of DNA
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for increasing the quantity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes
primer short segment of DNA that initiates replication by DNA polymerase
DNA fingerprint unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
clone genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism
genetic engineering process of changing an organism's DNA to give the organism new traits
recombinant DNA genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species
plasmid circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome
transgenic organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
gene knockout genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being expressed
genomics study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species
gene sequencing process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
Human Genome Project project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome
bioinformatics use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data
DNA microarray research tools used to study gene expression
proteomics study and comparison of all the proteins produced by an organism's genome
genetic screening process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorder
gene therapy procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into the patient's genome
Created by: HeilersA21