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Genetics review

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Term
Definition
Gel electrophoresis   A method to separate genetic material (DNA) into different sizes of fragments in order to diagnose genetic fingerprinting.  
Karyotype   A test used to identify the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in a cell. It allows to identify chromosomal mutations and the gender of an organism.  
Crossing over   A process in which genes are exchanged between homologous chromosomes to create genetically diverse gametes. This process occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis.  
Genetic Variation   Accomplished by crossing over in meiosis.  
Gametes   Haploid cells commonly known as sex cells (Eggs or Sperm).  
Homozygous dominant   A genotype with two dominant alleles. Represented by two capital letters- BB  
Heterozygous   A genotype with one dominant allele and one recessive allele. Represented by a capital letter and lower case letter- Bb  
Homozygous recessive   A genotype with two recessive alleles. Represented by two lower case letters-bb.  
Nondisjunction   A chromosomal mutation where a chromosome or chromatids fail to separate correctly during cell division- meiosis or mitosis. This results in daughter cells with extra chromosomes or with fewer chromosomes.  
Cancer   Uncontrolled cell division due to faulty checkpoints in the cell cycle. These cells typically skip G-0 and continue dividing constantly.  
Deletion mutation   A gene mutation in which one base or several bases are deleted from the gene leading to a frameshift of the reading frame.  
Substitution mutation   A gene mutation where one base is substituted for another base.  
Dominat Allele   The variant gene that is always expressed.  
Recessive Allele   The variant gene that is only expressed when its part of a homozygous genotype.  
Cell cycle   The life of a cell that includes the stages of G1, S, G2 and M.  
Meiosis   A type of reduction division that results in four genetically diverse gametes (sex cells).  
Mitosis   A type of division that results in two identical somatic (body) cells.  


   


 
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Created by: bireyher