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Unit 4 Mitosis Meiosis and Chromosomes

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Stage of mitosis where chromatin condenses into chromosomes   Prophase  
Process that creates haploid cells   Meiosis  
Describes a cell that has two complete sets of chromosomes (homologous pairs)   Diploid  
Phase of cell division in which sister chromatids are separated in a haploid cell   Anaphase 2  
Chromosomes that share the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles   homologous chromosomes  
Can be observed during metaphase in mitosis   Cells form a single file line down the center/equater of the cell  
Chromosomes that share the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles   homologous chromosomes  
Can be observed during metaphase in mitosis   Cells form a single file line down the center/equater of the cell  
Asexual reproduction often used by prokaryotic organisms   binary fission  
Forms of asexual reproduction   budding; fragmentation; parthenogenesis; binary fission  
Advantages of asexual reproduction   Uses less energy; quicker; no chance of not finding a mate; less necessity for tending young  
Disadvantage of asexual reproduction   less genetic diversity  
Cross-Over   homologous chromosomes swap alleles for some genes  
Stage where cross-over occurs   Prophase 1 in Meiosis  
Purpose of meiosis   To produce haploid gametes  
Nondisjunction   when homologous pairs are not separated properly during anaphase 1 of meiosis  
Gametes   Sex cells like sperm and egg; haploid; produced through meiosis  
Somatic Cells   Body cells, diploid, produced through mitosis  
Centrosome/centriole   organelle(s) that migrate to the poles of the cell and produce spindles during cell division  
DNA Replication   Each strand of DNA makes an identical copy during the S stage of interphase  
Centromere   Point in the center of a chromatid where sister chromatids can connect and spindles connect  
genotype   the set of alleles that are possible traits in an organism  
phenotype   the alleles that are physically expressed and actually appear in an organisms  
Father of Genetics   Gregor Mendel  
Law of Independent Assortment   Traits are independent of each other and many combinations of traits can appear in gametes (occurs in metaphase 1 of meiosis)  
Strands of DNA mixed with proteins found in the nucleus before cell division   chromatin  
process which results in physical separation of cells during cell division   cytokinesis  
3 stages of Interphase   G1, S, G2  
Stage where DNA Replication occus   S  
N   number of chromosomes in a single set; haploid  
2N   number of chromosomes in most cells; diploid  
Fragmentation   Asexual reproduction where an organism is split and grows into 2  
Budding   Asexual reproduction where a tiny offspring grows out of the parent  
Parthenogenesis   Asexual reproduction where normally sexually reproducing organisms can use a complete set of their own chromosomes to simulate a fertilized egg without a mate- similar to cloning  
These events contribute to increased genetic diversity in meiosis   1) Cross-over 2) Independent Assortment  
Phase in a diploid cell when chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Chromosomes are scattered about randomly   Prophase in Mitosis  
Phase in a diploid cell when chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell beside their homologous partner   Metaphase 1 in Meiosis  
Phase in a diploid cell when sister chromatids are separated   Anaphase in Mitosis  
Phase in a haploid cell when chromatin condenses to form chromosomes.   Prophase 2 in Meiosis  
Phase in a diploid cell when new nuclear membranes form around chromosomes and they relax   Telophase in Mitosis  
Nuclear membranes form around haploid nuclei that contain replicated chromosomes   Telophase 1 in Meiosis  
Sister chromatids are separated in a haploid cell   Anaphase 2 in Meiosis  
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; homologous pairs find each other   Prophase 1 in Meiosis  
Chromosomes line up single file in the middle of a haploid cell   Metaphase 2 in meiosis  
Nuclear membranes form around single chromatids, forming 4 haploid nuclei   Telophase 2 in meiosis  
haploid   A cell with only 1 set of chromosomes, not in pairs  
densely packed DNA coiled around proteins   chromosome  
a section of DNA that controls a trait   Gene  
Allele   A specific version of a gene (e.g. long tails)  
Term that describes when the result of an allele is presented in the phenotype of an organism   Expressed  
Describes a trait for which an organism has 2 or more different alleles   heterozygous  
Describes a trait for which an organism's alleles are all the same   homozygous  
fertilized egg cell   zygote  


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Created by: jaredlovering