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Cell Reproduction

Unit 4 Mitosis Meiosis and Chromosomes

Stage of mitosis where chromatin condenses into chromosomes Prophase
Process that creates haploid cells Meiosis
Describes a cell that has two complete sets of chromosomes (homologous pairs) Diploid
Phase of cell division in which sister chromatids are separated in a haploid cell Anaphase 2
Chromosomes that share the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles homologous chromosomes
Can be observed during metaphase in mitosis Cells form a single file line down the center/equater of the cell
Chromosomes that share the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles homologous chromosomes
Can be observed during metaphase in mitosis Cells form a single file line down the center/equater of the cell
Asexual reproduction often used by prokaryotic organisms binary fission
Forms of asexual reproduction budding; fragmentation; parthenogenesis; binary fission
Advantages of asexual reproduction Uses less energy; quicker; no chance of not finding a mate; less necessity for tending young
Disadvantage of asexual reproduction less genetic diversity
Cross-Over homologous chromosomes swap alleles for some genes
Stage where cross-over occurs Prophase 1 in Meiosis
Purpose of meiosis To produce haploid gametes
Nondisjunction when homologous pairs are not separated properly during anaphase 1 of meiosis
Gametes Sex cells like sperm and egg; haploid; produced through meiosis
Somatic Cells Body cells, diploid, produced through mitosis
Centrosome/centriole organelle(s) that migrate to the poles of the cell and produce spindles during cell division
DNA Replication Each strand of DNA makes an identical copy during the S stage of interphase
Centromere Point in the center of a chromatid where sister chromatids can connect and spindles connect
genotype the set of alleles that are possible traits in an organism
phenotype the alleles that are physically expressed and actually appear in an organisms
Father of Genetics Gregor Mendel
Law of Independent Assortment Traits are independent of each other and many combinations of traits can appear in gametes (occurs in metaphase 1 of meiosis)
Strands of DNA mixed with proteins found in the nucleus before cell division chromatin
process which results in physical separation of cells during cell division cytokinesis
3 stages of Interphase G1, S, G2
Stage where DNA Replication occus S
N number of chromosomes in a single set; haploid
2N number of chromosomes in most cells; diploid
Fragmentation Asexual reproduction where an organism is split and grows into 2
Budding Asexual reproduction where a tiny offspring grows out of the parent
Parthenogenesis Asexual reproduction where normally sexually reproducing organisms can use a complete set of their own chromosomes to simulate a fertilized egg without a mate- similar to cloning
These events contribute to increased genetic diversity in meiosis 1) Cross-over 2) Independent Assortment
Phase in a diploid cell when chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Chromosomes are scattered about randomly Prophase in Mitosis
Phase in a diploid cell when chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell beside their homologous partner Metaphase 1 in Meiosis
Phase in a diploid cell when sister chromatids are separated Anaphase in Mitosis
Phase in a haploid cell when chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. Prophase 2 in Meiosis
Phase in a diploid cell when new nuclear membranes form around chromosomes and they relax Telophase in Mitosis
Nuclear membranes form around haploid nuclei that contain replicated chromosomes Telophase 1 in Meiosis
Sister chromatids are separated in a haploid cell Anaphase 2 in Meiosis
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; homologous pairs find each other Prophase 1 in Meiosis
Chromosomes line up single file in the middle of a haploid cell Metaphase 2 in meiosis
Nuclear membranes form around single chromatids, forming 4 haploid nuclei Telophase 2 in meiosis
haploid A cell with only 1 set of chromosomes, not in pairs
densely packed DNA coiled around proteins chromosome
a section of DNA that controls a trait Gene
Allele A specific version of a gene (e.g. long tails)
Term that describes when the result of an allele is presented in the phenotype of an organism Expressed
Describes a trait for which an organism has 2 or more different alleles heterozygous
Describes a trait for which an organism's alleles are all the same homozygous
fertilized egg cell zygote
Created by: jaredlovering
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