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SLS Bio 12 Digestion MM

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Absorption   Absorbing or assimilating substances into cells  
Anaerobic bacteria   Bacteria capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen  
Anus   The opening at the end of the digestive tract where waste exits the body  
Bile   Secreted in liver, stored in gall bladder, discharged in duodenum to aid in digestion and emulsifying fats  
Capillary   Minute vessels connecting the arterioles and venules, forming a network in nearly all parts of the body. Their walls act as semipermeable membranes.  
Cardiac Sphincter   valve between esophagus and stomach  
Chemical Digestion   process in which chemicals in the body separate large food molecules into smaller ones so they can pass through the wall of the intestine.  
Digestive Enzyme   enzyme capable of breaking down food into smaller particles/ molecules which are more suitable for absorption  
Digestive Tract   digestive structures and system from mouth down the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and finally to the anus.  
Duodenum   First part of the small intestine  
Emulsification   break down of fat droplets into smaller more easily digested droplets  
Epiglottis   Thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea whilst swallowing.  
Esophagus   a muscular tube in which food passes through enroute to the stomach between the pharynx and the stomach  
Gall bladder   digestive organ which stores bile (produced in the liver) used in the digestion and absorption of fats in the duodenum.  
Gastric Juice   acidic digestive fluid secreted by glands lining the stomach, primarily for digestion of food.  
Hydrochloric acid   Solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water - activates pepsin from its inactive from of pepsinogen  
Insulin   peptide hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate carbohydrates in the blood ( blood glucose levels)  
Intestinal Juice   secretions from glands lining the intestinal walls, neutralizes hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach; released gastrointestinal hormones into the bloodstream; contains digestive enzymes that facilitate the digestion and absorption of food.  
Lacteals   the tiny vessels in the villi located in the wall of the small intestine. Fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed and released through the lacteal into the lymphatic system.  
Large Intestine (colon)   responsible for forming, storing and expelling waste matter.  
Lipase   water-soluable enzyme released from pancreas into small intestine- catalyzes hydrolysis of lipids, breaking down fats into glycerol and fatty acids.  
Liver   large glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein, carbs, and fats.  
Maltase   breaks down maltose into glucose  
Microvillus   minute hairlike structures projecting from the exposed surface of the cell to increase the surface area allowing for greater absorption and secretion.  
Nuclease   hydrolyzes nucleic acids into nucleotides  
Pancreas   secretes insulin, aid in the digestion of fats and proteins in the small intestine by secreting specific enzymes  
Pancreatic amylase   enzyme in the pancreatic juice that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.  
Pancreatic juice   fluid secreted into the duodenum by the pancreas; important or breaking down starches, proteins and fats  
Pepsin   digest dietary proteins into simpler, shorter chains of amino acids with hydrochloric acid  
Pepsinogen   the inactive form of pepsin activated by hydrochloric acid  
Peptidase   any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into amino acids.  
Peristalsis   the wave like contractions that transport bolus down the esophagus and into the stomach  
pH   Concentration of H+ ions in relation to OH- ions. More H+ is more acidic and a low number, greater OH- is a larger number and basic.  
Pharynx   The passage to the stomach and lungs. Circular muscles form constrictions that help push food to the esophagus and precent air form being swallowed.  
Physical digestion   Breakdown of food by physical means. (chewing, blending, chopping - also includes peristalsis)  
Protease   any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of interior peptide bonds in a protein  
Pyloric sphincter   a ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.  
Rectum   Terminal extension of the large intestine which opens to the anus.  
Salivary Amylase   Produced by the salivary glands and starts the initial chemical digestion of starch in the mouth.  
Salivary Gland   secretes salivary amylase into the mouth  
Salivary Juice/ Saliva   secretion of the salivary gland. Moistens the oral cavity, provides lubrication for swallowing, and initiates digestion process.  
Small intestine   Composed of three sections, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. All involved in the absorption of nutrients.  
Sodium Bicarbonate   Used to neutralize the chyme coming from the stomach into the small intestine.  
Stomach   Stomach produces gastric juice which breaks down proteins. It prepares the food before it can be transported to the duodenum, the upper part of the small intestine.  
Swallowing   To take in food to the mouth and propel it towards the stomach through successive muscular action down the esophagus.  
Trypsin   pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units.  
Villus   The villi work in partnership with the small intestine to dispatch nutrients, including amino acids and glucose, to the bloodstream.  


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