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SLS Bio 12 Digestion

SLS Bio 12 Digestion MM

TermDefinition
Absorption Absorbing or assimilating substances into cells
Anaerobic bacteria Bacteria capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen
Anus The opening at the end of the digestive tract where waste exits the body
Bile Secreted in liver, stored in gall bladder, discharged in duodenum to aid in digestion and emulsifying fats
Capillary Minute vessels connecting the arterioles and venules, forming a network in nearly all parts of the body. Their walls act as semipermeable membranes.
Cardiac Sphincter valve between esophagus and stomach
Chemical Digestion process in which chemicals in the body separate large food molecules into smaller ones so they can pass through the wall of the intestine.
Digestive Enzyme enzyme capable of breaking down food into smaller particles/ molecules which are more suitable for absorption
Digestive Tract digestive structures and system from mouth down the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and finally to the anus.
Duodenum First part of the small intestine
Emulsification break down of fat droplets into smaller more easily digested droplets
Epiglottis Thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea whilst swallowing.
Esophagus a muscular tube in which food passes through enroute to the stomach between the pharynx and the stomach
Gall bladder digestive organ which stores bile (produced in the liver) used in the digestion and absorption of fats in the duodenum.
Gastric Juice acidic digestive fluid secreted by glands lining the stomach, primarily for digestion of food.
Hydrochloric acid Solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water - activates pepsin from its inactive from of pepsinogen
Insulin peptide hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate carbohydrates in the blood ( blood glucose levels)
Intestinal Juice secretions from glands lining the intestinal walls, neutralizes hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach; released gastrointestinal hormones into the bloodstream; contains digestive enzymes that facilitate the digestion and absorption of food.
Lacteals the tiny vessels in the villi located in the wall of the small intestine. Fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed and released through the lacteal into the lymphatic system.
Large Intestine (colon) responsible for forming, storing and expelling waste matter.
Lipase water-soluable enzyme released from pancreas into small intestine- catalyzes hydrolysis of lipids, breaking down fats into glycerol and fatty acids.
Liver large glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein, carbs, and fats.
Maltase breaks down maltose into glucose
Microvillus minute hairlike structures projecting from the exposed surface of the cell to increase the surface area allowing for greater absorption and secretion.
Nuclease hydrolyzes nucleic acids into nucleotides
Pancreas secretes insulin, aid in the digestion of fats and proteins in the small intestine by secreting specific enzymes
Pancreatic amylase enzyme in the pancreatic juice that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch.
Pancreatic juice fluid secreted into the duodenum by the pancreas; important or breaking down starches, proteins and fats
Pepsin digest dietary proteins into simpler, shorter chains of amino acids with hydrochloric acid
Pepsinogen the inactive form of pepsin activated by hydrochloric acid
Peptidase any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into amino acids.
Peristalsis the wave like contractions that transport bolus down the esophagus and into the stomach
pH Concentration of H+ ions in relation to OH- ions. More H+ is more acidic and a low number, greater OH- is a larger number and basic.
Pharynx The passage to the stomach and lungs. Circular muscles form constrictions that help push food to the esophagus and precent air form being swallowed.
Physical digestion Breakdown of food by physical means. (chewing, blending, chopping - also includes peristalsis)
Protease any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of interior peptide bonds in a protein
Pyloric sphincter a ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.
Rectum Terminal extension of the large intestine which opens to the anus.
Salivary Amylase Produced by the salivary glands and starts the initial chemical digestion of starch in the mouth.
Salivary Gland secretes salivary amylase into the mouth
Salivary Juice/ Saliva secretion of the salivary gland. Moistens the oral cavity, provides lubrication for swallowing, and initiates digestion process.
Small intestine Composed of three sections, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. All involved in the absorption of nutrients.
Sodium Bicarbonate Used to neutralize the chyme coming from the stomach into the small intestine.
Stomach Stomach produces gastric juice which breaks down proteins. It prepares the food before it can be transported to the duodenum, the upper part of the small intestine.
Swallowing To take in food to the mouth and propel it towards the stomach through successive muscular action down the esophagus.
Trypsin pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins to form smaller polypeptide units.
Villus The villi work in partnership with the small intestine to dispatch nutrients, including amino acids and glucose, to the bloodstream.
Created by: madym