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Pathophys

TermDefinefurther definement
Segmental demyelinaion Schwann cell dysfunction; damage to myelin sheath; loss of saltatory conduction, replacement has shorter internodes and thinner insulation; inc in NA channels; slower (blank)
Damage to the PNS damage to the axon: axonal degeneration(more lethal than SD), primary damage to axon followed by myelin sheath dissolution (blank)
Focal axonal Damage trauma or ischemia induced; wallerian dege: distal to a site of wound, sequence of axonal and myelin degneration; denervation atrophy (blank)
Wallerian Degeneration cleaning out dead portion; 1. swelling near cut; 2. hypertrophy of the neurofiliments; 3. shrinkage of myelin sheath; degeneration of the axon (blank)
Nerve regeneration the further you are from the cell body the more likely it will; may or may not; most likely not; permanent loss of function (blank)
Ulnar Nerve Syndrom compression of ulnar nerve; repair: move ulnar nerve on top; doesn't cure just preserves current function (blank)
Guillanin-Barre Syndrome Autoimmune PNS inflammatory neuropathy; preceded by viral infection; tcell mediated immune attack on myelin sheath; transient; treatable if caught within days; one person in 100,000; more prevalent with alcoholics (blank)
Chronic Immune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Autoimmune PNS inflammatory neuropathy; Remissions and relapses; Demyelination mediated by serum antibodies(macrophage); segmental; thin myelin sheaths; loss of saltatory conduction; conduction block; slow nerve conduction speed; < 80% slower (blank)
MS Autoimmune CNS inflammatory neuropathy;Autoantibodies activate the complement system against myelin sheath; sclerotic plaques build up around myelin sheath; activates immune response (blank)
Myasthenia Gravis ACH & receptors autoantibodies; disrupts Ach; destruction of the muscle membrane; complement activation; destruction of neuromuscular junction; increase receptor trunover (blank)
Leprosy Infectious PNS Neuropathy; schwann cells invaded by mycobaterium leprae; segemental demyelination; multilayered thickening and endoneurial fibrosis; loss of pain fibers, loss of sensory function 1st (blank)
The cognitive normal consciousness; arousal; reticular activating system content of thought - sleep wake cycle; awareness: self, environment; mood (blank)
causes of alterations in state of arousal acute onset: structural change(bludgeon), metabolic change(blood flow); psychogenic change(schizo, behavior; pathologic process;infectios; vascular; neoplastic; traumatic; congenital; degenerative(alz parkinson); metabolic (blank)
Patterns of Breathing(Concepts of Neurological Dysfunction[cognitive system]) 16-20 bpm; indicate level of brain function based on rate, rhythm, and pattern; normal breathign is controlled by forebrain, as consciousness decreases lower brainstem regulates breathing in respsonse to co2 levels (blank)
Vommiting(Concepts of Neurological Dysfunction[cognitive system]) lower brain functions; most cns disorders produce nausea and vomiting- over stimulated thalamus (blank)
Pupillary changes(Concepts of Neurological Dysfunction[cognitive system]) indicates presence and level of brainstem dysfunction(hypoxia produces dilated fixed pupil) (blank)
Oculomotor repsonses(Concepts of Neurological Dysfunction[cognitive system]) Reflexive eye movements change in various level of brain dysfunction (blank)
motor responses(Concepts of Neurological Dysfunction[cognitive system]) motor respsonse evaluate the level and site of brain dysfunction (blank)
Brain Death brain cannot maintain bodies internal homeostasis (blank)
Cerebral Death irreversible coma; death of hemispheres not affecting brainstem and cerebellum (blank)
Vegatative State complete unawareness of environment and self (blank)
Cerebral Hemodynamis Cerbral Blood Volume: 75ml 15% of cardiac output; Cerebral blood flow: uses 20% of o2, affected by co2 and o2 levels; cerebral perfusion: normal 80mmHg, less than 70 insuffiant; intracranial pressure 5-15mmHg (blank)
Alterations to Cerebral Hemodynamis Increased intracranial pressure: tumor, edema, excess CSF(blocked drain), hemorrhage; Results in equal loss in volume of other contents: CSF, alt. in cerebral blood flow(stroke), structural changes(herniation - lethal - major structural changes (blank)
Created by: bmg4