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BIO205-CH1-Intro

BIO205 - Ch 1 - Microbial World and You - RioSalado - AZ

QuestionAnswer
Microbes/microorganisms include? Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, microscopic alge, & viruses (noncellular).
Pathogenic "Disease-producing"
Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast - used to make bread - belongs to Kingdom Fungi
Fermentation Metabolic process - enzyme degradation of carbs - anaerobic - ex: yeast metabolizes sugars in bread to produce alcohol (ethanol) & CO2.
genus, specific epithet Grouping of one or more species by certain traits - particular species w/in genus - first name always capitalized - italicized
Bacteria & archaeans are parth of which domain? Prokaryotic - Don't have nucleus - greatest metabolic diversity.
Bacteria Simple, single-celled (unicellular) organisms - prokaryote
Bacillus rodlike
Coccus spherical or ovoid
Spiral corkscrew or curved
peptidoglycan Protein & carb complex of cell walls for bacteria
archaea Prokaryotic (no nucleus) - lack peptidoglycan - found in extreme environments - methanogens (produce methane), extreme halophiles (salt-loving), extreme thermophiles (heat loving)
Fungi (fungus) Eukaryotes - uni/multicellular - no photosyn. - lack peptidoglycan - decomposers - digest food outside body then absorb.
Yeasts Fungi, eukaryotes - unicellular & oval - larger than bacteria.
Eukaryotes Have nucleus w/nuclear membrane
Domain eukaryotes includes? Protists, fungi, plants, & animals
Protists Multicellular - have nucleus - seaweeds
Plants Photosynthetic - producers
Animals Ingest tissues or juices - consumers
Molds form visible masses called __. mycelia - long cottony growths
Fungi can reproduce __ or __. sexually or asexually
protozoa (protozoan) Unicellular, eukaryotic microbes - move w/flagella, pseudopods, or cilia - amoebas - free entities or parasites - sexual or asexual
algae (alga) Eukaryotes, photosynthetic, sex/asex, cell walls w/cellulose - photosynthetic - produce O2 & carbs
Viruses acellular - core of DNA or RNA w/protein coat.
3 Domain System Bacteria (cell wall w/peptidoglycan), archaea (cell wall w/o peptidoglycan), & eukarya
How are bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, & viruses distinguished on basis of cellular structure? Through the 3 domain system.
2 major groups of parasitic worms flatworms & round worms (helminths)
Helminths round worms - start as microscopic
Name 3 types of protists slime molds, protozoa, & algae
Name 3 types of fungi unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, & mushrooms
Cell theory All living things are composed of cells - Hooke in 1665
What was Robert Hooke's contribution to biology? Cell theory
What was Anton van Leeuwenhoek's contribution to microbiology? Observed living bacteria & protozoa - microorganisms
Spontaneous generation Life can arise from nonliving matter.
Biogenesis Life can arise only from preexisting living cells - Virchow 1858
How did Pasteur contribute to aseptic techniques? Pasteur showed that microbial life can be destroyed by heat & that methods can block access to unwanted microorganisms.
aseptic techniques Techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted organisms.
Pasteurization Heating to kill bacteria
Germ theory of disease Microorganisms cause diease
Koch's postulates Sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease.
Jenner's contribution was? Innoculation (cow pox to protect against smallpox) - later vaccination named by Pasteur
Chemotherapy Treatment of disease using chemical substances.
Antibiotics are produced by __. bacteria & fungi
Who discovered penicillin? Fleming 1928
Mycology Study of fungi
Parasitology Study of protozoa & parasitic worms
Genomics Study of all of an organism's genes
recombinant DNA (rDNA) A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from 2 different sources.
recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology Manufacturing & manipulating genetic material in vitro - genetic engineering
molecular biology How genetic info is carried in DNA & how DNA directs synthesis of proteins.
conjugation Genetic material transferred from one bacterium to another.
List 4 beneficial activities of microorganisms (1) converting essential elements, (2) sewage treatment, (3) bioremediation, (4) pest control
bioremediation bacteria use pollutants & break them down into less harmful substances.
biotechnology Use of microorganisms to produce common foods & chemicals.
List 2 examples of biotechnology recombinant DNA tech, gene therapy
Normal microbiota "flora" - microorganisms on & inside our bodies.
Name 2 jobs performed in our bodies by normal microbiota (1) prevent diseases by limiting overgrowth by harmful microbes (2) produce Vit K & B
EIDs Emerging infectious diseases - new diseases or changing.
H5N1 Avian influenza A
SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus
WNE West nile encephalitis - causes encephalitis
BSE Mad cow - bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Prion infectious protein
E. coli Escherichia coli - normal lg. intesting inhabitant - produces certain vitamins - some can cause diarrhea E. coli 0157:H7
IGAS - group A streptococcus Flesh eating bacteria - Invasive Group A Strep
EHF Ebola hemorrhagic fever
HIV destroys what? CD4 lymphocytes
Most __ have a peptidoglycan cell wall. bacteria have them.
2 types of chemotherapeutic agents Synthetic drugs & antibiotics
Created by: Ladystorm