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Block 2 embryo

high yield

Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER stimulate extension of limbs CC:Remove AER leads to limb defects Thalidomide inhibits proliferation and interupts the AER functioning
FGFR-3 Lengthening of limbs CC: Disruption leads to dwarfism
HOX Segmentation - Provides address for limbs CC: Results from failure of webs to degenerate (ie failure of cell death/apoptosis). Limbs in wrong places Klippel-Feil Brevicollis Syndactyly
WNT7a Organization along Dorsal-Ventral axis
ZPA Morphogenic control region located at the base of the developing limb bud. Regulates differentiation of digits.
MyoD Induces muscle development CC: Prune Belly, Congenital Torticollis, Poland Syndrome
PAX6 Patterning of neural tube Basal - Primary Motor-efferent
SHH patterning along anterior-posterior axis
PAX3 Patterning of neural tube Alar-sensory- afferent
Joint formation Type depends on extracellular matrix secreted
Synovial joint Central mesenchyme disappears to form cavity (depends on movement) (diarthrosis) - freely moveable joints are the most common found
Fibrous joint like sutures of the skull synarthrodial - immoveable joints found in cranial vault and teeth
Cartilaginous joint Hyaline or fibrocartilage formed; synchondroses and sympheses - partially moveable joints Ex: costochondral joints, pubic symphysis
Joint movement - hinge Flexion/Extension; elbow/knee
Joint movement - pivot Rotation of one bone around another; neck, atlas and axis bones
Joint movement - ball and socket shoulder and hip
Joint movement - saddle thumb
Joint movement - condyloid Wrist joints
Joint movement - Gliding Gliding movements; intercarpal joints
Created by: xeenie