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forstrey voc e - z


emergent A tree that grows above the general level of the forest canopy. In ecology, a plant which emerges from the water to grow in wetlands.
evergreen Plants that do not lose their leaves during the winter. These are usually conifer trees but some, such as the live oak, are broadleaf trees.
Forest Development Program A state-and industry-funded cost-sharing programadministered by the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources. The program pays landowners for approved tree site preparation and planting activities.
forest A community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms covering a considerable area, that use oxygen, water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself.
forest ecosystem The organisms, soil, water and air, associated with a forest, along with other forest-related areas
forest floor The lowest level of the forest, typically composed of small plants, fungi, and decomposing material.
forest management The practical application of scientific, economic, and social principles to the administration of a forest, for specified objectives.
Forest Management Plan Written guidelines for current and future management practices recommended to meet an owner’s objectives.
forest region An extensive area of a continent in which the climax forest associations are closely similar.
Forest Stewardship Program A technical assistance program to help private landowners manage all their forest resources –soil, water, wildlife, timber, recreation, beauty, and endangered species—for today and for future generations.
Forest Stewardship Plan A written document listing activities that enhance or improve forest resources (wildlife, timber, soil, water, recreation, and aesthetics) on private land over a 5- year period.
forestry The principles and practices for managing, using, and enjoying forests. Forestry includes a broad range of activities: managing timber, fish, wildlife, range, and watersheds; protecting forest and timber products from diseases, insects, and fire, harv
growth rings Growth rings represent the annual increases in wood and diameter growth of the tree. Each ring consists of early wood (or springwood) and late wood (or summerwood).
hardwood Deciduous or broadleaf trees
heartwood The inner core of a woody stem, wholly composed of nonliving cells and usually differentiated from the outer enveloping layer (called sapwood) by its darker color
log rule or log scale A table based on a diagram or mathematical formula used to estimate volume or product yield from logs and trees. Three log rules are used today in North Carolina: Scribner is the common scale for pine; Doyle is the common hardwood scale; and the Inter
lop To cut the limbs from a felled tree.
multiple-use forestry Any practice of forestry fulfilling two or more objectives of management.
old growth Describes virgin forests or forests with trees over 100 years of age.
partial cutting Tree removal other then by clearcutting
plywood An assembled product constructed of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue and usually laid with the grain of adjoining plies at right angles to one another. Usually an odd number of plies are used to give balanced construction.
prescribed burn The planned burning of a forest, stand, prairie, or slash pile with the intent to confine the burning to a predetermined area.
reforestation Reestablishing a forest by planing or seeding an area from which forest vegetation has been removed.
regeneration cut A cutting strategy in which old trees are removed while favorable environmental conditions are maintained for the establishment of a new stand of seedlings.
ring, annual Any yearly growth layer as viewed on the crosssection of a stem, branch, or root.
root collar The transition zone between stem and root at the ground line of a tree or seedling.
root hairs A filamentous outgrowth near the tip of a rootlet that absorbs water and minerals.
rootlet A small root
salvage cut The harvesting of dead or damaged trees or of trees in danger of being killed by insects, disease, flooding, or other factors in order to save their economic value.
sapling A young tree, less than 4 inches dbh (diameter at breast height). The minimum size of saplings is usually placed at 2 inches.
sapwood The younger, softer, living or physiologically activeouter portion of a tree’s wood that lies between the cambium and the heartwood. The sapwood is more permeable, less durable, and usually lighter in color than the heartwood. The tree’s water and nutr
sawlog or sawtimber A log or tree that is large enough (usually 10 to 12 inches in diameter) to be sawed into lumber. Minimum log length is typically 8 feet.
seedling A young tree grown from a seed to a small sapling.
seed tree A tree left behind when a stand is harvested or partially cleared to provide a source of seed for the species desired to be renewed.
seed tree cut A harvesting method in which a few scattered trees are left behind to provide a source of seed.
selective cutting The cutting of intermediate-aged, mature, or diseased trees in an uneven-aged forest stand, either singly or in small groups. This encourages the growth of younger trees and maintains an uneven-aged stand.
selective harvesting The removal of individual or small clusters of trees to manage a forest stand so that it has a mixture of age classes and products.
serotinous A pinecone or other seed case that requires heat from a fire to open and release the seed.
shearing Slicing or cutting trees or stumps at the ground line. Shearing may be done at harvest or with a KG blade during site preparation.
shelterbelt (or windbreak ) A row of trees and shrubs planted along the edge of a cultivated field to limit soil erosion caused by wind.
shelterwood cut The removal of the understory of a forest so that younger saplings can grow in the shade of older and larger trees.
silviculture The science and art of cultivating forest crops according to a study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees; silviculturalist.
single-tree selection Harvesting single trees in a forest stand
site index A relative measure of forest site quality based on the height (in feet) of the dominant trees at a specific age (usually 25 or 50 years, depending on rotation length). Site index information helps estimate future returns and land productivity for timb
site preparation Preparing an area of land for planting, direct seeding, or natural reproduction by burning, by chemical vegetation control, or by mechanical operations such as disking, bedding, scarifying, wind-rowing, or raking.
slash the residue left on the ground after trees are harvested.
snag A standing dead tree. Snags frequently provide homes for wildlife.
softwood trees Usually refers to coniferous trees. Some deciduous trees, such as aspen, also have relatively soft wood
springwood The less dense, larger-celled, first-formed part of a growth layer.
stand An easily defined area of the forest that is relatively uniform in species composition or age and can be managed as a single unit.
stewardship forest A privately owned forest tract that exhibits integrated forest management to protect and enhance wildlife, timber, recreation, natural beauty, and soil and water quality.
Stewardship Incentive Program (SIP) A cost-sharing program available to forest landowners who have a multi-resource forest stewardship plan.endangered species Practices include cost-sharing assistance for the enhancement of forest recreation, fisheries, wildlife, and timber production
stratification, forest The various layers of trees in a forest from the upper layer (canopy) to saplings, seedlings, and small herbaceous plants.
sustainable forestry Managing forests to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This is done by practicing a land stewardship ethic that integrates the reforestation, managing, growing, nurturing and
softwood trees Usually refers to coniferous trees. Some deciduous trees, such as aspen, also have relatively soft wood.
taproot The main rot of a tree that strikes downward with or without heavy branching until it either reaches an impenetrable layer or one so lacking in oxygen or moisture that further downward growth is impossible.
temperate forest A forest with moderate year-round temperatures and district seasons that are characterized by both broadleaf evergreens and conifers. Characteristic trees of a temperate forest include: oaks, magnolias, and royal palms.
thin To reduce the number of trees in a stand.
timber A forest stand containing trees of commercial size and quality suitable for sawing into lumber.
timber cruise The process of determining estimates of timber volume, growth, stand density, and other kinds of information on a forest property.
timberland Forests that are capable of growing 20 cubic feet (.6m) per acre per year of commercial wood.
timberline The upper limit of tree growth on mountains.
tolerant species A species of tree that has the ability to grow in the shade of other trees and in competition with them.
tree A plant that is usually more than 12 feet tall and has a single main woody stem with a distinct crown of leaves.
tree farm A privately owned woodland where sustainable forest management is the primary objective.
understory The layer formed by the crowns of smaller trees in a forest.
urban forestry A specialized branch of forestry that has as its objective the cultivation and management of trees for their contribution to the physiological, social, and economic well being of urban activity.
vegetation The mass of plants that cover a given area. (Flora sometimes used—incorrectly—as a synonym for vegetation is actually a list of the species of plants that compose the vegetation.
vegetative reproduction An asexual means of propagating new plants through root shoots, bulbs, leaf cutting, or underground stems
vertical vegetation zones The belt of distinctive plant cover in mountainous regions resulting from climatic changes related to elevation changes.
woodlands (or open forest) A wooded area in which the crowns of the trees do not form a closed canopy.
Created by: aaronbrown1