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Biology 1442 Final

QuestionAnswer
primary growth -growth from the apical meristems (in buds) -makes it taller and wider
secondary growth -growth from lateral meristems (middle of stem) -makes it thicker (monocots don't have this)
vascular cambium -cylinder of cells responsible for growth
secondary xylem -made up of three rings (shows age/growth and growing season) -inside VC
secondary phloem -outside VC
periderm -in the bark -made of both cork and cork cambium
cork cambium -produces a barrier on the outside of trees for protection
carrier proteins -passive transport -take/move substances with the gradient
selective channels -passive transport -only allows certain substances to pass through
proton pumps -active transport -cations get moved to area of high concentration
osmosis -diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
hyperosmotic (plasmolysis) -more solutes than water in the solution
hypoosmotic -more water than solutes in the solution
transmembrane route -lateral transport -moves substances across a cell membrane -slowest
symplast route -lateral transport -moves substances through plasmodesmata that connects all cells -second fastest/slowest
apoplast route -lateral transport -moves substances on the outside of the membrane/not in any cell -fastest
mycorrhizae -relationship between roots and fungi
pathway of water soil->epidermis->root cortex->xylem
casparian strip -blocks/controls entry into the xylem -suberin
xylem sap -provides water to all cells of the plant -provides nutrients (minerals)
transpiration -pushing water out of the plant -evaporation of water from plants/leaves
guttation -water that gets pushed out of the stomata when it opens in the morning -caused by root pressure (pushing xylem sap)
transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism -pulls xylem sap
transpiration pull -water molecules stick together by hydrogen bonds so when they evaporate they pull one another upwards
cohesion -water wants to stick to other water molecules
adhesion -water wants to stick to other non-water molecules -fights against gravity
photosynthesis-transpiration compromise -the opening/closing of the stomata (water evaporation and gas exchange) when the prevention of water loss is needed, which makes photosynthesis stop
wilting -not enough water in the shoots/leaves -no turgor pressure
stomata -controls transpiration by guard cells
turgid -guard cells "buckle" -takes up potassium
flaccid -guard cells sag -lose potassium -produce abscisic acid
3 cues of stomata opening -light -decrease of CO2 in leaf air space -internal clock of guard cells
3 cues of stomata closing -water deficiency resulting in flaccid cells -mesophyll production of abscisic acid -high temperature
phloem sap -bulk flow, positive pressure flow -translocation (change location?)
PS contents -sucrose -minerals -amino acids -hormones
source -where something is being produced
sink -where something is being used up
phloem loading -where the source is -usually apoplastic route -sometimes symplastic route (older way) -active transport
phloem unloading -where the sink is -sometimes active transport (not as important) -sometimes diffusion
photoautotrophic -organisms that carry out photosynthesis to acquire food/energy -plants
macronutrients -nutrients required in large amounts -carbon, oxygen, hydrogen are components of plant's organic compounds -nitrogen makes up nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, etc. -sulfer for proteins and enzymes
micronutrients -nutrients required in small amounts -chlorine which starts the water-splitting step of photosynthesis -iron which is a cofactor in chlorophyll production
topsoil (first layer) -humus=made up of compost (dead/decaying stuff) -maximum level of biological activity
O horizon -organic -includes topsoil
A horizon -mineral -maximum biological activity
E horizon -mineral -water solution-minerals suspended in it -removal of minerals
B horizon (subsoil) -mineral -accumulation of suspended material from above
C horizon -mineral -weathered parent material
R horizon -bedrock
loam (soil type) -mix of equal amounts of different particles: gravel/sand, silt, and clay
gravel/sand -large sized particles -minerals don't suspend in them
silt -medium sized particles -some suspension of minerals
clay -smallest sized particles -suspension of minerals/coaxing minerals away from clay (gradient) -have properties of both a solid and a liquid -have negative particles that hold positive particles
fertilizer -puts nutrients back into the soil -nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus
organic fertilizer -no chemical release (pro) -mostly animals feces so there is cross-contamination and not a large supply of it (con)
chemical fertilizer -controls what goes into the soil so there is not much cross-contamination (pro) -produce greenhouse gasses (con)
crop rotation -rotate where certain crops are grown
irrigation -bringing in water from another source to make sure plants have enough water
erosion -the movement of particles by liquids (air/water)
wind breaks -method of preventing erosion -blocks wind by barriers (line of trees, etc.)
terracing -method of preventing erosion -making levels on the side of hills to plant crops/plants on
nitrogen-fixing bacteria -turn gaseous nitrogen into ammonia
ammonifying bacteria -turn organic material into ammonia
nitrifying bacteria -turn ammonium into nitrate?
denitrifying bacteria -turn nitrate into gaseous nitrogen
parasites -take nutrients from their hosts -ex: mistletoe
epiphytes -live on a host but don't take anything from it -ex: spanish moss
carnivorous plants -eat animals/food items -ex: venus flytrap, pitcher plants, sundew plants
mucilage glands -gland in carnivorous plants that produces a digestive enzyme -makes the plant close
alternation of generations -go from haploid in one generation to diploid in the next generation -haploids produce diploids; diploids produce haploids
gametophyte -haploid (n) cell -go through mitosis/fertilization -sexual reproduction -produce gametes
sporophyte -diploid (2n) cell -go through meiosis -asexual reproduction -produce spores
mitosis -division of the nucleus resulting in an exact copy of the original
meiosis -reduction in the number of chromosomes in the nucleus
gametogenesis -formation of the sperm and the egg
fertilization -fusion of the sperm and the egg
flower anatomy 1-sepals 2-petals 3-stamens 4-carpels
calyx -all sepals -acts as a protective barrier
corolla -petals + sex organs -interact with the pollenator
stamens (asexual) -filament=long inside stem -anther=top area where pollen is
pollen grain contents 1-germinative=produce 2 sperm nuclei 2-vegetative=produce pollen tube
pollen production -each diploid cell (microsporocyte) produces 4 microspores -4 microspores divide mitotically to form 8 pollen grains
surrounding pollen grain outer layer=sporopollenin inner layer=pectin surround
pollen grain -male gametophyte -microsporocyte
embryo sac -female gametophyte -megasporocyte
carpels (asexual) -style=long stem in middle -stigma=top pollen containing tip -ovary=contains 1+ ovules -embryo sac=contains 2 polar nuclei and 1 egg
embryo sac production -1 diploid cell (megasporocyte) in nucellus produces 4 haploid cells -4 haploid cells divide mitotically to form embryo sac
embryo sac production 2 megasporocyte (2n) -> meiosis -> megaspore (n) -> mitosis -> 3 antipodal cells + 2 polar nuclei + 1 egg
hermaphroditic -flowers are perfect (both stamens and carpels)
monoecious -imperfect flower -both carpellate and staminate on each plant
dioecious -imperfect flower -carpellate on one plant and staminate on another plant
fertilization -pollen tube elongates -generative cells divides to form 2 sperm nuclei
endosperm -nucleus (3n) -> 2 polar nuclei plus sperm
ovule -seed
ovary -fruit
radicle (eudicots) -embryonic root -first thing that comes out to establish water source
hypocotyl (eudicots) -embryonic stem
epicotyl (eudicots) -embryonic shoot -plumules=at the top of epicotyl (look like leaves)
cotyledons (eudicots) -body of the seed (both halves when split open)
scutellum (monocots) -cotyledon
coleorhiza (monocots) -covers embryonic root
coleoptile -sheath that covers shoot apex
fruit -enlarged ovary of a plant -apples, oranges, peaches...
vegetable -some other part of the plant
aggregate fruit -made up of multiple ovaries -strawberries, raspberries
multiple fruit -made up of more than one flower -pineapples
seed dispersal (selective advantages) 1-reduced competition between offspring for resources 2-decreased relatedness to potential mates 3-reduced competition between parent and offspring
agents of seed dispersal 1-could eat the fruit (fish, mammals, birds...) 2-seeds may be transported long distances after being ingested 3-seeds may hitch a ride on an organism
seed germination -glucose breakdown initially anaerobic -cells enlarge (embryo bursts seed coat) -radicle emerges (establishes water connection) -hypocotyl elongates (moves opposite radicle and becomes stem)
pollination -spread of male gametophytes
coevolution -evolve together and so closely related -sometimes develop attributes that are beneficial to the other organism and not themselves
animal pollinators -only one animal that pollinates one types of plant (work together) -bees
vegitative reproduction (asexual) -like budding in animals
apomixis -like parthenogenesis
fragmentation -stems and leaves -roots can produce aerial shoots
grafting -put a part of one tree on another and it grows
signal transduction pathway 1-reception 2-transduction 3-response
reception -stimulated by hormone or environmental stimulus
transduction -relay proteins and secondary messengers -could be one or more steps
response -regulation of one or more cellular activities
parenchyma -average plant cells (alive) -does all the work of the cell (photosynthesis, CR)
collenchyma -support cells (alive) -unevenly thickened cell walls -flexible; can elongate
sclerenchyma -have really thick secondary cell walls (not alive) -lignan=tough, sturdy compound; staines red -fibers (stacked end to end) or fibers (bunches)
fibrous root system -good for water absorption -stabalizing soil/prevent erosion -anchoring plant to the ground -good for reproduction
taproot system -good for storing starch -support/counter balance
storage roots -radishes
aerial roots -allows the seed to begin growth before in the ground
pneumatophores -prevent the loss of oxygen (allow trees to live in water) by having a root stick straight up
root cap -packed tightly -suberin (lipid)=really tough, sturdy, and water proof
meristem (zone of division) -perpetually embryonic cells (like stem cells)
quiescent center -middle of meristem -mitotic divisions happening slowly and carefully
primary meristem 1-protoderm=dermal tissue (outside) 2-ground meristem=ground tissue 3-procambium=vascular tissue (inner)
zone of elongation -start to see the different types of cells evolve
zone of differentiation 1-epidermis=outer later 2-cortex=middle ground tissue 3-stele (vascular)=inner layer 4-pericycle=ring around xylem/phloem (vascular tissue) 5-endodermis=ring around pericycle (ground tissue)
Created by: kaitlin.suttles