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Chp1-Organization of

anatomy physiology week 1

hypothesis idea or principle to be tested
experiment series of tests of a hypothesis, controlled experiment eliminates biases or outside influences
theory a hypothesis that has been proven by an experiment to have a high degree of confidence
law a theory that has an unusually high level of confidence
anatomy science of the normal structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
gross anatomy study of the body and its parts using NAKED EYE
microscopic anatomy AKA histology, study of body parts using a microscope
what are the two types of microscopic anatomy? cytology = study of cells histology = study of tissues
developmental anatomy study of human growth and development
pathological anatomy study of diseased body structures
systemic anatomy study of the body by systems
physiology science of the normal functions of organisms
subdivisions of physiology are named according to: organism involved = human or plant physiology organizational level = molecular or ccellular physiology systemic function = respiratory, neurovascular, cardiovascular
characteristics of life -responsiveness -conductivity -growth -respiration -digestion -absorption -secretion -excretion -circulation -reproduction
metabolism sum total of all physical and chemical reactions occurring in the living body
chemical level basis for life, separates living material from nonliving material, organization of atoms molecules and macromolecules results in living matter --> cytoplasm
organelle level chemical structures organized to form organelles that perform individual functions, function of the organelles that allow the cell to live, dozens of organelles have been identified --> mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum
cellular level smallest/numerous unit that has characteristics of life, nucleous is surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membrane, cells differentiate to perform unique tasks, smallest living unit in body
tissue level similar cells together to perform certain functions, tissue cells surrounded by nonliving matrix
four major tissue types epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
oran level organization of several diff kinds of tissues to perform a special function, represent complex operational units, each organ has a unique size shape appearance and placement in body
system level made of organs, most complex organizational unit of body,
system level of organization performs what functions? -support and movement -communication, control, integration -transportation and defense -respiration, nutrition, excretion -reproduction and development
organism level living human organism is greater than the sum of its parts, all components interact to allow human to survive and flourish
bilateral symmetry left and right sides are mirror images, balanced proportions,
ipsilateral structures are on the same side
contralateral structures are on opposite sides
ventral body cavity -located in front -contains thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity contains: -right and left pleural cavities (lungs) -mediastinum (heart)
abdominopelvic cavity contains: -abdominal cavity -pelvic cavity
axial subdivision -head -neck -torso, or trunk
appendicular subdivision -upper extremity and subdivisions -lower extremity and subdivisions -
abdominal regions -right hypochondriac -epigastric -left hypochondriac -right lumbar -umbilical -left lumbar -right iliac (inguinal) -hypogastric -left iliac (inguinal)
abdomiopelvic quadrants -right upper quadrant -left upper quadrant -right lower quadrant -left lower quadrant
directional terms -superior -inferior -anterior (ventral) -posterior (dorsal) -medial -lateral -proximal -distal -superficial -deep
terms related to organs -lumen -central -peripheral -medullary -cortical -apical -basal
sagittal plane runs front to back so that sections through this plane divide body into right and left parts
midsagittal or median sagittal sagittal plane exactly in middle
frontal (coronal) plane runs lengthwise (side to side), divides body into anterior and posterior
transverse (horizontal) plane crosswise plane, divides body into upper and lower
somatotype category of body build or physique
name somatotypes endomorphic (apple shaped, pear shaped), mesomorph, ectomorph
endomorph -heavy, rounded physique with accumulation of fat -apple shape --> more fat in waist than hips (health problems!) -pear shaped --> more fat in hips than waist
mesomorph muscular physique
ectomorph thin, fragile physique with little fat
homeostasis describe the relatively constant states maintained by the body, internal environment around body cells remains constant
homeostatic control mechanisms devices for maintaining or restoring homeostasis by self-regulation through feedback control loops
basic components of control mechanisms -sensor mechanism -integrating, or control mechanism -effector mechanism -feedback
sensor mechanism specific sensors detect and react to any changes from normal
integrating or control center information is analyzed and integrated, and then a specific action is initiated
effector mechanism effectors directly influence controlled physiological variables, organs that take effect
feedback process of information about a variable constantly flowing back from the sensor to the integrator
negative feedback control systems: -are inhibitory -stabilize physiological variables -produce an action that is opposite to change activated in system -are responsible for maintaining homeostasis -are much more common than positive feedback
positive feedback control systems: -are stimulatory -amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring -tend to produce destabilizing effects and disrupt homeostasis -bring specific body functions to swift completion
levels of homeostatic control intracellular control = within cells intrinsic control (autoregulation) = within tissues or organs extrinsic control = organ to organ
atrophy term to describe the wasting effects of advancing age
terms related to organs lumen, central, peripheral, medullary, cortical, apical, basal
lumen hollow part or organ
central near center of the body
peripheral across the boundary of the body
medullary inner region of organ
cortical outer region or layer of an organ
basal base or widest part of an organ (in cone shape organs)
apical narrow tip of an organ (in cone shape)
Created by: BretteM



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