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Biology 11 Ch 3

Multicellular Diversity

alga (plural algae) a unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic, aquatic protist
plant a multicellular photosynthetic eukaryote with cellulose-based cell walls
embryo an organism’s early pre-birth stage of development
sporic reproduction sexual reproduction that alternates between a gamete-making individual and a sporemaking individual
gametophyte the haploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces gametes by mitosis
sporophyte the diploid plant in sporic reproduction that produces spores by meiosis
bryophyte a small, non-vascular land plant; the formal name Bryophyta is reserved for the mosses, one group of bryophytes
gymnosperm a vascular plant with non-enclosed seeds
angiosperm a vascular plant with seeds enclosed in protective tissue
cone a gymnosperm structure that contains male or female reproductive parts
flower a collection of structures in angiosperms used for sexual reproduction
fruit a mature ovary of a flower that protects and disperses dormant seeds
monocot a major cluster of flowering plants that have one cotyledon
dicot a major cluster of flowering plants that have two cotyledons
fungus (plural fungi) a stationary, heterotrophic eukaryotic organism whose cell walls contain chitin
hypha (plural hyphae) a multicellular, threadlike filament that makes up the basic structural unit of a fungus
mycelium (plural mycelia) a complex, net-like mass made of branching hyphae
fruiting body the spore-producing reproductive structure in fungi
zygospore a diploid structure that develops after two haploid hyphae of opposite types combine and fuse their nuclei; this structure is characteristic of zygospore fungi that reproduce sexually during unfavourable conditions
ascus (plural asci) a small finger-like structure in which sac fungi develop spores
basidium (plural basidia) a club-shaped hypha found in members of the Basidiomycotes; they bear spores called basidiospores
lichen an organism that results from a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic plant or alga
invertebrate an animal that does not have a backbone
vertebrate an animal with an internal skeleton and a backbone
radial symmetry a body plan that can be divided along any plane, through a central axis, into roughly equal halves
bilateral symmetry a body plan that can be divided along one plane, through the central axis, into equal halves
coelom a fluid-filled body cavity that provides space for the development and suspension of organs and organ systems
segmentation the division of multicellular bodies into a series of repetitive parts
polyp the tube-shaped sessile body form of cnidarians
medusa the umbrella shaped, free-swimming body form of cnidarians
mantle a membrane that surrounds a mollusc’s internal organs
exoskeleton an external skeleton that protects organs, provides support for muscle attachment, and protects against water loss and predation
notochord a flexible, rod-shaped structure found in chordate animals; during vertebrate development it is replaced by the spine
cartilage the flexible, non-bony, tough material found in vertebrate endoskeletons
tetrapod a vertebrate with two pairs of limbs; an amphibian, reptile, bird, or mammal
ectothermy the reliance on environmental heat for determining internal body temperature
endothermy the use of metabolic heat to maintain a high, constant body temperature
mammary gland a mammalian gland that produces and secretes milk for nourishing developing young
placenta an organ in the pregnant uterus that exchanges nutrients and oxygen between the mother and developing offspring
mass extinction a large-scale dying out of a large percentage of all living organisms within an area over a short time
biodiversity crisis the current decline in genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity that may represent a mass extinction
modelling a scientific method in which an idea about a mechanism is formulated and real-life data are then used to see if the data fit the model
temperature sex determination a system in which the sex of offspring is determined by incubation temperature rather than by genes
Created by: marsenault