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Biology 11 Ch 1

Classifying Life's Diversity

QuestionAnswer
species a group of organisms that can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
morphology the branch of biology that deals with the structure or form of organisms
phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species
taxonomy the branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species based on natural features
binomial nomenclature the system of giving a two-word Latin name to each species—the first part is the genus and the second part is the species
genus (plural genera) taxonomic group of a closely related species
classification the grouping of organisms based on a set of criteria that helps to organize and indicate evolutionary relationships
hierarchical classification the method of classifying organisms in which species are arranged in categories from most general to most specific
rank a level in a classification scheme, such as phylum or order
taxon (plural taxa) a named group of organisms such as phylum Chordata or order Rodentia
ancestor an organism (or organisms) from which other groups of organisms are descended
anatomy the branch of biology that deals with structure and form, including internal systems
physiology the branch of biology dealing with the physical and chemical functions of organisms, including internal processes
phylogenetic tree a branching diagram used to show the evolutionary relationships among species
structural diversity a type of biological diversity that is exhibited in the variety of structural forms in living things, from internal cell structure to body morphology
prokaryotic a smaller, simple type of cell that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus
eukaryotic a larger, complex type of cell that does have a membrane bound nucleus
dichotomous key an identification tool consisting of a series of two-part choices that lead the user to a correct identification
autotroph an organism that captures energy from sunlight (or sometimes non-living substances) to produce its own energy-yielding food
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy from consuming other organisms
species diversity the variety and abundance of species in a given area
genetic diversity the variety of heritable characteristics (genes) in a population of interbreeding individuals
ecosystem diversity the variety of ecosystems in the biosphere
gene pool all the genes of all the individuals in a population
population a group of individuals of the same species in a specific area at a specific time
resilience the ability of an ecosystem to remain functional and stable in the presence of disturbances to its parts
Created by: marsenault