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bioloy sol review 4

transformation when bacteria take up the recombinant DNAand express the new trait
genetic engineering can be used for the following 1. extract DNA from cells 2. cut DNA into smaller pieces 3. identify the sequence of bases 4. make unlimited copies of DNA
1 level of classification Kingdom
2 level of classification Phylum
3 level of classification Class
4 level of classification Order
5 level of classification Family
6 level of classification Genus
7 level of classification Species
homologous structures in order to classify organisms- scientist look at these- ex) wing of a bat, arm of a human, flipper of a whale
archaebacteria prokaryotic, single celled, lack peptidoglycan
eubacteria prokaryotic, "true bacteria"
protist eukaryotic (protzoa, algae, slime molds) most uni. some multi.
fungi eukaryotic, heterotrophic, cell wall of chitin, decomposers
plants all multicellular, autotrophic, cell wall of cellulose
animals all multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell wall, most move
porifera no true tissues (sponges)
cnidera hollow digestive cavity with tentacles (jellyfish, hydra)
platyhelminthes three layers of cells; flatworms; bilateral symmetry
nematoda digestive system with mouth and anus; round
annelida segmented, closed circulatory system (earthworm)
mollusca soft body, hard shell in some, 3 main body regions
arthropoda segmented body, jointed appendanges, exoskeleton
echinodermata spiny skinned, radial symmetry (starfish, sea urchin)
jawless fish jawless fishes
cartilage fish fish with skeletons of cartilage
boney fish fish with skeletons of bone
amphibians breath through gills/ lungs/ moist skin, 3 chambered heart
reptiles ectothermic, scales, 3 chambered heart, watertight eggs
birds endothermic, wings, 4 chambered heart
mammals endothermic, hair, milk to feed young
non-vascular no true root, stems and leaves
vascular true roots, stems, and leaves and vascular system
population group of organisms of the same species that live together in a particular location
community all of the populations living in a specific location
ecosystem the community of organisms in an area, as well as the non-living factors of the environment
biosphere the living and non-living portions of Earth that sustain life
abiotic non-living factors
biotic living factors
autotrophs produce own food
heterotrophs get food from other organisms
herbivores plant eaters
carnivores meat eaters
predator hunt for food
decomposer eat material that is already dead
omnivore eat both plants and animals
symbiosis two organisms living together with close relationship
commensalism one organism benefits, one unaffected- ex) barnacles on whales
mutualism both organisms benefit ex) clowfish and sea anmone
parasitism one organism benefits- the other is harmed- the harmed organism is called the host ex) tapeworm in intestine
natural selection individuals better suited to environment survive and reproduce
artificial selection selection by humans for breeding of useful traits
sexual selection natural selection based on organisms ability to mate
gradualism DArwin model which suggests that evolution is a slow, gradual, and continuos process
puctuated equilibrium long periods of no physical change- followed by short periods of abrupt change
species populations of organisms that can interbreed
speciation process by which genetically distinct species arise as a result of accumulation of adaptations over time
microevolution small-scale change of allele frequencies with in a populations
macroevolution large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time
variation exists because of mutation
offspring individuals best suited for survival leave more of these
fossils perserved remains - evidence that indicate present day species have evolved from ancestors- now extinct
skeletal support bidy, protects internal organs; bones cartilage, tendons, ligaments
muscular move body parts; smooth and skeletal muscle
integumentary protection from injury, disease, dehydration; skin, hair, nails
digestive supplies nutrients and energy; mouth; esophogous, stomach, intestines
circulatory gas exchange, transports nutrients and wastes; heart, vessels, blood
endocrine controls physiological processes; hormone secreting glands
nervous senses environment, directs behavior; brain, spinal chord, peripheral nerves
immune destroys invading microbes; lymph, lymphnodes, WBCs
urinary removes wastes and toxin; kidney, bladder
respiratory gas exchange (O2 in and CO2 out); lungs, trachea
Pasteur developed germ theory of disease with Robert Koch; infectious diseases caused by microrganisms
Virchow contributed to cell theory- cells only come from other cells
Herchey and Chase proved DNA was the genetic material of cells; used bacteriophages
Griffth discovered transformation
Darwin Theory of Natural Selection- Survival of the Fittest
Created by: qesarah
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